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欧洲云杉Picea abies

时间:2013-07-15 16:13来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
欧洲云杉,Picea abies,挪威云杉






中文名(Chinese Name):欧洲云杉
学名(Scientific Name):Picea abies (Linn.) Karst.
英文名(English Common Name):Norway spruce
别名(Chinese Common Name):挪威云杉
异名(Synonym):Abies pumila Voss;Abies lemoniana Booth ex Gordon;Abies minima Lavallée;Abies carpatica (Loudon) Ravenscr.;Abies clambrasiliana Lavallée;Abies clanbrassiliana Loudon;Abies minuta Poir.;Abies viminalis Wahlenb.;Abies coerulescens K.Koch;Abies communis P.Lawson;Abies commutata var. mucronata Loudon;Abies conica Lavallée;Abies cranstonii Lavallée;Abies elegans Sm. ex J.Knight;Abies eremita K.Koch;Abies excelsa var. argentea Berg;Abies excelsa var. carpatica Loudon;Abies excelsa var. clambrasiliana Lavallée;Abies excelsa var. columnaris Jacques;Abies excelsa var. conica Lavallée;Abies excelsa var. inversa Gordon;Abies excelsa var. mucronata (Loudon) Loudon;Abies finedonensis Gordon;Abies gigantea Sm. ex Carrière;Abies gregoryana H.Low. ex Gordon;Abies inverta R.Sm. ex Gordon;Abies parvula Knight;Picea excelsa f. parsonsii Hornibr.;Picea excelsa f. veitchii Hornibr.;Picea excelsa var. argentea Beissn.;Picea excelsa var. balcanica Velen.;Picea excelsa var. columnaris (Jacques) Carrière;Picea excelsa var. mucronata (Loudon) Carrière;Picea excelsa var. pendula (P.Lawson) Carrière;Picea excelsa var. pendula-major Simon-Louis ex Sénécl.;Picea finedonensis Beissn.;Picea maxwellii Beissn.;Picea abies var. inversa (Gordon) Rehder;Picea abies var. pendula (P.Lawson) Rehder;Picea abies var. reflexa (Carrière) Hornibr.;Picea gregoryana Beissn.;Picea abies f. argentea Rehder;Picea abies f. chlorocarpa (Purk.) Th.Fr.;Picea abies f. columnaris (Jacques) Rehder;Picea abies f. cupressina (F.Thomas) Rehder;Picea abies f. erythrocarpa (Purk.) Rehder;Picea abies f. mucronata (Loudon) Rehder;Picea abies f. nigra (Loudon) Th.Fr.;Picea abies f. parsonsii (Hornibr.) Rehder;Picea abies f. veitchii (Hornibr.) Rehder;Picea abies subsp. europaea (Tepl.) Hyl.;Picea cranstonii Beissn.;Picea elegantissima Beissn.;Picea excelsa f. erythrocarpa (Purk.) Wittr. ex H.E.Schroet.;Picea excelsa f. inversa (Gordon) Beissn.;Picea remontii Beissn.;Picea velebitica Simonk. ex Kümmerle;Picea viminalis (Alstr.) Beissn.;Picea vulgaris f. viminalis (Alstr.) Hayek;Picea vulgaris var. alpestris (Brügger) Becc.;Picea vulgaris var. apiculata Beck;Pinus abies f. erythrocarpa (Purk.) Voss;Pinus carpatica Gordon;Pinus cinerea R?hl.;Pinus clanbrasiliana J.Forbes;Pinus picea var. mucronata (Loudon) Endl.;Picea abies 'Excelsa'  
科属(Family & Genus):松科(Pinaceae)云杉属
形态特征(Description):乔木,在原产地高达60米,胸径达4-6米;幼树树皮薄,老树树皮厚,裂成小块薄片。大枝斜展,小枝通常下垂,幼枝淡红褐色或桔红色,无毛或有疏毛。冬芽圆锥形,先端尖,芽鳞淡红褐色上部芽鳞反卷,基部芽鳞先端长尖,有纵脊,具短柔毛。小枝上面之叶向前或向上伸展,下面之叶向两侧伸展或与两侧之叶向上弯伸,或下垂小枝之叶辐射向前伸展,四棱状条形,直或弯曲,长1.2-2.5厘米,横切面斜方形,四边有气孔线。球果圆柱形,长10-15厘米,稀达18.5厘米,成熟时褐色;种鳞较薄,斜方状倒卵形或斜方状卵形,先端截形或有凹缺,边缘有细缺齿;种子长约4毫米,种翅长约16毫米。
分布(Distribution):原产欧洲北部及中部,为北欧主要造林树种之一。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Picea abies (Linnaeus) H. Karsten, Deutsche Flora. 2/3: 324. 1881.
欧洲云杉 ou zhou yun shan | Pinaceae  | Picea
Pinus abies Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1002. 1753; P. excelsa Lamarck (1778), not Wallich ex D. Don (1828); Picea excelsa (Lamarck) Link.
Trees to 60 m tall; trunk to 6 m d.b.h. in native range; bark furrowed into small scales; branchlets usually pendulous, reddish brown or orange when young, glabrous or slightly pubescent; winter buds conical, scales reflexed, reddish brown. Leaves ascending or directed forward on upper side of branchlets, spreading on lower side, quadrangular-linear, straight or curved, 1.2-2.5 cm, stomatal lines along each surface. Seed cones brown when mature, cylindric, 10-15(-18.5) cm. Seed scales rhombic-obovate or -ovate, distal margin denticulate, apex truncate or emarginate. Seeds ca. 4 mm; wing ca. 1.6 cm.
Cultivated. Beijing Shi, Jiangxi (Lu Shan), Shandong (Qingdao Shi) [native to Europe]
 
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