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台湾杉Taiwania cryptomerioides

时间:2013-07-15 16:01来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
台湾杉,Taiwania cryptomerioides




中文名(Chinese Name):台湾杉
学名(Scientific Name):Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Taiwania flousiana Gaussen  Taiwania cryptomerioides var. flousiana (Gaussen) Silba  Taiwania yunnanensis Koidz.  Eotaiwania fushunensis Y.Yendo  Taiwania fushunensis (Y.Yendo) Koidz.   
科属(Family & Genus):杉科Taxodiaceae台湾杉属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达60米,胸径3米;枝平展,树冠广圆形。大树之叶钻形、腹背隆起,背脊和先端向内弯曲,长3-5毫米,两侧宽2-2.5毫米,腹面宽1-1.5毫米,稀长至9毫米,宽4.5毫米,四面均有气孔线,下面每边8-10条,上面每边8-9条; 幼树及萌生枝上之叶的两侧扁的四棱钻形,微向内侧弯曲,先端锐尖,长达2.2厘米,宽约2毫米。雄球花2-5个簇生枝顶,雄蕊10-15枚,每雄蕊有2-3个花药,雌球花球形,球果卵圆形或短圆柱形;中部种鳞长约7毫米,宽8毫米,上部边缘膜质,先端中央有突起的小尖头,背面先端下方有不明显的圆形腺点;种子长椭圆形或长椭圆状倒卵形,连翅长6毫米,径4.5毫米。球果10-11月成熟。
分布(Distribution):为我国特有树种,产于台湾中央山脉海拔1800-2600米地带。常散生于红桧及台湾扁柏林中,间有小块纯林。
用途(Use):为我国台湾的主要用材树种之一,心材紫红褐色,边材深黄褐色带红,纹理直,结构细、均匀。可供建筑、桥梁、电杆、舟车、家具、板材及造纸原料等用材。也是台湾的主要造林树种。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4 Page 56
Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 37: 330. 1906.
台湾杉 tai wan shan  | Taxodiaceae  | Taiwania
Taiwania cryptomerioides var. flousiana (Gaussen) Silba; T. flousiana Gaussen; T. yunnanensis Koidzumi.
Trees to 75 m tall; trunk to 3.5 m d.b.h.; bark brownish gray, cracking into long, irregular flakes; crown conical or broadly rounded. Leaves of old branchlets 1.5-8(-9) mm × 0.8-2.5 mm, stomata in 8-13 rows on adaxial, long side and in 6-9 rows on 2 abaxial flanks. Leaves of young trees and new branchlets borne at 40-70° to axis, bluish green, 1-2.5 cm × 1.2-2 mm, stomata in 3-6 rows on each surface. Pollen cones in clusters of 2-7; microsporophylls 10-36, each with 2 or 3 pollen sacs. Seed cones shortly cylindric to ellipsoid or narrowly so, 1-2.2 cm × 6-11 mm; cone scales 15-39, median scales broadly obdeltoid, 6-7 × 7-8 mm, claw ca. 2/5 × total length of scale. Seeds oblong-ovate, narrowly elliptic, or narrowly elliptic-obovate, 4-7 × 2.5-4.5 mm (including wings 1-1.5 mm wide projecting 1-1.5 mm beyond apex of seed). Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Oct-Nov. 2n = 22*, 33.
Coniferous, broad-leaved, or mixed evergreen valley forests on acid, red, or brown soils in warm or warm temperate regions with high summer and autumn rainfall but drier winters, usually scattered and associated with Chamaecyparis formosensis, C. obtusa var. formosana, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Pinus wallichiana, or Tsuga dumosa, but sometimes forming pure stands; 500-2800 m. SE Guizhou (Leigong Shan), SW Hubei (Lichuan Xian, Maoba), SE Sichuan (Youyang Xian), Taiwan (Zhongyang Shan), SE Xizang (Zayü Xian), W Yunnan [N Myanmar]
A rare species in China, decreasing as a result of cutting for timber. It may attain an age of over 2000 years and, within its native range, can be used for afforestation. The wood is easily worked, and is used in building, making furniture and coffins ("Chinese coffin tree"), bridge and boat construction, and paper manufacture.
This taxon was lectotypified (Ohashi, H. & K. Ohashi. 2008. J. Jap. Bot. 83: 177-184) after publication of the family treatment for the Flora of China.
(责任编辑:徐晔春)
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