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黑松Pinus thunbergii

时间:2013-07-15 16:00来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
黑松,Pinus thunbergii






中文名(Chinese Name):黑松
学名(Scientific Name):Pinus thunbergii Parl.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Pinus thunbergiana (Parl.) Franco  Pinus thunbergii var. pendula Mayr
科属(Family & Genus):松科Pinaceae松属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达30米,胸径可达2米;幼树树皮暗灰色,老则灰黑色,粗厚,裂成块片脱落;枝条开展,树冠宽圆锥状或伞形;一年生枝淡褐黄色,无毛;冬芽银白色,圆柱状椭圆形或圆柱形,顶端尖,芽鳞披针形或条状披针形,边缘白色丝状。针叶2针一束,深绿色,有光泽,粗硬,长6-12厘米,径1.5-2毫米,边缘有细锯齿,背腹面均有气孔线;横切面皮下层细胞一或二层、连续排列,两角上二至四层,树脂道6-11个,中生。雄球花淡红褐色,圆柱形,长1.5-2厘米,聚生于新枝下部;雌球花单生或2-3个聚生于新枝近顶端,直立,有梗,卵圆形,淡紫红色或淡褐红色。球果成熟前绿色,熟时褐色,圆锥状卵圆形或卵圆形,长4-6厘米,径3-4厘米,有短梗,向下弯垂;中部种鳞卵状椭圆形,鳞盾微肥厚,横脊显著,鳞脐微凹,有短刺;种子倒卵状椭圆形,长5-7毫米,径2-3.5毫米,连翅长1.5-1.8厘米,种翅灰褐色,有深色条纹;子叶5-10(多为7-8)枚,长2-4厘米,初生叶条形,长约2厘米,叶缘具疏生短刺毛,或近全缘。花期4-5月,种子第二年10月成熟。
分布(Distribution):原产日本及朝鲜南部海岸地区。
用途(Use):木材富树脂,较坚韧,结构较细,纹理直,耐久用。可作建筑、矿柱、器具、板料及薪炭等用材。亦可提取树脂。我国多作庭园观赏树种。可作我国山东、江苏及浙江沿海地区的造林树种。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4 Page 21
Pinus thunbergii Parlatore in A. de Candolle, Prodr. 16(2): 388. 1868.
黑松Trees to 30 m tall; trunk to 2 m d.b.h. in native range; bark dull gray when young, aging gray-black, rough and thick, scaly and decidous; crown broadly conical or umbrellalike; 1st-year branchlets pale brown-yellow, glabrous; winter buds silvery white, cylindric-ellipsoid or cylindric, scales fringed at margin. Needles 2 per bundle, dull green, shiny, 6-12 cm × 0.5-2 mm, rigid, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, resin canals 6-11, median, base with persistent sheath, margin serrulate. Seed cones solitary or 2 or 3 together, shortly pedunculate, brown, conical-ovoid or ovoid, 4-6 × 3-4 cm, deciduous. Seed scales ovate-elliptic; apophyses slightly swollen, obviously cross keeled; umbo slightly concave, apex blunt. Seeds obovoid-ellipsoid, 5-7 × 2-3.5 mm; wing gray-brown, 1-1.1 cm. Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Oct of 2nd year.
Cultivated in cities, used for afforestation on mountain slopes; to 1400 m. Beijing Shi, Hubei (Wuhan Shi, Yingshan Xian), Jiangsu (Nanjing Shi), Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shandong, Yunnan (Kunming Shi), Zhejiang [native to Japan, Korea]
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