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圆柏Juniperus chinensis

时间:2013-07-15 15:39来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
圆柏,Juniperus chinensis,刺柏,红心柏,桧








中文名(Chinese Name):圆柏
学名(Scientific Name):Juniperus chinensis L.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):刺柏、红心柏、桧
异名(Synonym):Sabina vulgaris var. erectopatens Cheng et L. K. Fu;Sabina chinensis (Linn.) Ant.;Juniperus fortunei Hort. ex Carrière;Juniperus thunbergii Hook. et Arn.;Juniperus sabina var. erectopatens (W. C. Cheng et L. K. Fu) Y. F. Yu et L. K. Fu;Juniperus sinensis J. F. Gmel.;Juniperus virginica Thunb.;Juniperus cernua Roxb.;Juniperus dimorpha Roxb.;Sabina dimorpha (Roxb.) Antoine;Juniperus flagelliformis Hort. ex London;Juniperus sphaerica Lindl.;Sabina sphaerica (Lindl.) Antoine;Juniperus cabiancae Vis.;Sabina cabiancae (Vis.) Antoine;Juniperus chinensis var. pendula Franch.;Juniperus erectopatens (W. C. Cheng et L. K. Fu) R. P. Adams;Juniperus chinensis var. mascula Lavallée;Juniperus shepherdii Beissn.;Juniperus jacobii Beissn.;Juniperus sheppardii (H.J.Veitch) Melle;Juniperus sphaerica var. pendula (Franch.) Melle;Juniperus sphaerica var. sheppardii H.J.Veitch;Juniperus struthiacea Knight;Juniperus chinensis f. aurea-pendula Beissn.;Juniperus chinensis var. foemina Lavallée;Juniperus chinensis var. keteleeri Beissn.;Juniperus chinensis var. leeana Lavallée;Juniperus keteleeri (Beissn.) Prop.-Giesel.;Juniperus reevesiana Endl.;Sabina struthiacea (Knight) Antoine 
科属(Family & Genus柏科(Cupressaceae)刺柏属(Juniperus
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达20米,胸径达3.5米;树皮深灰色,纵裂,成条片开裂;幼树的枝条通常斜上伸展,形成尖塔形树冠,老则下部大枝平展,形成广圆形的树冠;树皮灰褐色,纵裂,裂成不规则的薄片脱落;小枝通常直或稍成弧状弯曲,生鳞叶的小枝近圆柱形或近四棱形,径1-1.2毫米。叶二型,即刺叶及鳞叶;刺叶生于幼树之上,老龄树则全为鳞叶,壮龄树兼有刺叶与鳞叶;生于一年生小枝的一回分枝的鳞叶三叶轮生,直 伸而紧密,近披针形,先端微渐尖,长2.5-5毫米,背面近中部有椭圆形微凹的腺体;刺叶三叶交互轮生,斜展,疏松,披针形,先端渐尖,长6-12毫米,上面微凹,有两条白粉带。雌雄异株,稀同株,雄球花黄色,椭圆形,长2.5-3.5毫米,雄蕊5-7对,常有3-4花药。球果近圆球形,径6-8毫米,两年成熟,熟时暗褐色,被白粉或白粉脱落,有1-4粒种子;种子卵圆形,扁,顶端钝,有棱脊及少数树脂槽;子叶2枚,出土,条形,长1.3-1.5厘米,宽约1毫米,先端锐尖,下面有两条白色气孔带,上面则不明显。
分布(Distribution):产于内蒙古乌拉山、河北、山西、山东、江苏、浙江、福建、安徽、江西、河南、陕西南部、甘肃南部、四川、湖北西部、湖南、贵州、广东、广西北部及云南等地。生于中性土、钙质土及微酸性土上,各地亦多栽培,西藏也有栽培。朝鲜、日本也有分布。
用途(Use):心材淡褐红色,边材淡黄褐色,有香气,坚韧致密,耐腐力强。可作房屋建筑、家具、文具及工艺品等用材;树根、树干及枝叶可提取柏木脑的原料及柏木油;枝叶入药,能祛风散寒,活血消肿、利尿;种子可提润滑油;为普遍栽培的庭园树种。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Juniperus chinensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 2: 660; Mant. Pl. 1: 127. 1767.
圆柏 yuan bai | Cupressaceae  | Juniperus
Shrubs or trees to 25 m, dioecious, rarely monoecious; bark grayish brown; crown of trees pyramidal to open, broad and irregular; branches spreading; branchlets straight or slightly curved, terete or 4-angled, 1-1.2 mm in diam. Leaves both scalelike and needlelike; needlelike leaves present on both young and adult plants, decussate or in whorls of 3, loosely arranged, ascending, nearly lanceolate, (3-)6-12 mm, with 2 white stomatal bands adaxially; scalelike leaves present on adult plants, decussate, closely appressed, 1.5-3 mm, abaxial gland near center, elliptic, slightly concave. Pollen cones yellow, ellipsoid, 4-6 × 2-3 mm; microsporophylls 14-18, each with 3 or 4 pollen sacs. Seed cones brown when ripe, usually glaucous, subglobose, 4-9 mm in diam., (1or)2- or 3(or 4)-seeded. Seeds ovoid, 3-6 × 2-5 mm, slightly flattened, ridged, with resin pits, apex blunt.
Mountains; 1400-2300 m. Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, N Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, W Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Nei Mongol, S Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, E Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Myanmar, E Russia].
(责任编辑:徐晔春)
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