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水松Glyptostrobus pensilis

时间:2013-07-15 15:48来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
水松,Glyptostrobus pensilis,水杉纵








中文名(Chinese Name):水松
学名(Scientific Name): Glyptostrobus pensilis (Staunt.) Koch
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):水杉纵
异名(Synonym):Glyptostrobus aquaticus (Antoine) R. Parker;Glyptostrobus heterophyllus (Brongn.) Endl.  Sabina aquatica Antoine;Taxodium japonicum var. heterophyllum Brongn.;Juniperus aquatica Roxb.;Cuprespinnata heterophylla (Brongn.) J. Nelson;Glyptostrobus sinensis A. Henry ex Lodder;Cuprespinnata sinensis (J. Forbes) J. Nelson;Cupressepinnata heterophylla (Brongn.) J. Nelson;Cupressepinnata sinensis (J.Forbes) J. Nelson;Cupressus nucifera Carrière;Schubertia nucifera Denham ex Endl.;Taxodium heterophyllum Brongn.;Thuja lavandulifolia Poir. 
科属(Family & Genus):杉科(Taxodiaceae)水松属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高8-10米,稀高达25米,生于湿生环境者,树干基部膨大成柱槽状,并且有伸出土面或水面的吸收根,柱槽高达70余厘米,干基直径达60-120,厘米,树干有扭纹;树皮褐色或灰白色而带褐色,纵裂成不规则的长条片;枝条稀疏,大枝近平展,上部枝条斜伸;短枝从二年生枝的顶芽或多年生枝的腋芽伸出,长8-18厘米,冬季脱落;主枝则从多年生及二年生的顶芽伸出,冬季不脱落。叶多型:鳞形叶较厚或背腹隆起,螺旋状着生于多年生或当年生的主枝上,长约2毫米,有白色气孔点,冬季不脱落;条形叶两侧扁平,薄,常列成二列,先端尖,基部渐窄,长1-3厘米,宽1.5-4毫米,淡绿色,背面中脉两侧有气孔带;条状钻形叶两侧扁,背腹窿起,先端渐尖或尖钝,微向外弯,长4-11毫米,辐射伸展或列成三列状;条形叶及条状钻形叶均于冬季连同侧生短枝一同脱落。球果倒卵圆形,长2-2.5厘米,径1.3-1.5厘米;种鳞木质,扁平,中部的倒卵形,基部楔形,先端圆,鳞背近边缘处有6-10个微向外反的三角状尖齿;苞鳞与种鳞几全部合生,仅先端分离,三角状,向外反曲,位于种鳞背面的中部或中上部;种子椭圆形,稍扁,褐色,长5-7毫米,宽3-4毫米,下端有长翅,翅长4-7毫米。子叶4-5枚,条状针形,长1.2-1.6厘米,宽不及1毫米,无气孔线;初生叶条形,长约2厘米,宽1.5毫米,轮生、对生或互生,主茎有白色小点。花期1-2月,球果秋后成熟。
分布(Distribution):为我国特有树种,主要分布在广州珠江三角洲和福建中部及闽江下游海拔1000米以下地区。广东东部及西部、福建西部及北部、江西东部、四川东南部、广西及云南东南部也有零星分布。
用途(Use):可作建筑、桥梁、家具等用材。根部的木质轻松,比重为0.12,浮力大,可做救生圈、瓶塞等软木用具。根系发达,可栽于河边、堤旁,作固堤护岸和防风之用。树形优美,可作庭园树种。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Glyptostrobus pensilis (Staunton ex D. Don) K. Koch, Dendrologie. 2(2): 191. 1873.
水松 shui song | Taxodiaceae  | Glyptostrobus
Thuja pensilis Staunton ex D. Don in Lambert, Descr. Pinus, ed. 2, 2: 115. 1828; Glyptostrobus aquaticus (Antoine) R. Parker; G. heterophyllus (Brongniart) Endlicher; G. sinensis A. Henry ex Loder; Sabina aquatica Antoine; Taxodium japonicum (Thunberg ex Linnaeus f.) Brongniart var. heterophyllum Brongniart; T. sinense J. Forbes.
Trees to 15(-25) m tall; trunk to 1.2 m d.b.h., basal part (ca. 0.7 m) buttressed; bark brown or grayish white with brown tinge, cracking into long, irregular strips; main branches spreading horizontally; lateral branchlets in 2 rows, those of older branches often very dense and broomlike. Scale leaves on mature branchlets appressed, 1.5-3 × 0.4-0.6 mm, with scattered, white, stomatal spots, adaxial surface convex, base decurrent, apex incurved, slightly hooked. Leaves of 1st year branchlets erect-spreading at 40-45° to axis, 1.5-2 mm apart, forming a narrowly oblong-lanceolate branchlet outline, subulate, slightly falcately recurved distally, 2-7 × 0.4-0.6 mm, with stomatal lines along all surfaces and on branchlet axis, trailing edge with narrow, membranous wing decurrent onto branchlet axis. Seed cones obovoid, 1.4-2.5 × 0.9-1.5 cm; bracts ± connate with cone scales except for triangular apex located in middle or distal middle part of cone scale; cone scales flattened, median scales obovate, 1-1.3 cm × 3-5.5 mm, base cuneate, apical margin with 6-10 triangular, outwardly curved teeth adaxially. Seeds brown, elliptic, slightly flattened, 5-7 × 3-4 mm, with a basal wing 4-7 mm. Pollination Jan-Mar, seed maturity Sep-Oct(-Nov), persisting until following spring.
River deltas, etc., on flooded or waterlogged soil in full sun; near sea level. Fujian, S Guangdong, S Guangxi, Hainan, E Jiangxi, E Sichuan, SE Yunnan (Pingbian Miaozu Zizhixian), Zhejiang [N Vietnam (extinct in the wild)].
May no longer exist in the wild anywhere in China; rare in all provinces except Guangdong. Most frequent along the Zhu Jiang delta, in Guangdong, and along the lower reaches of the Min Jiang in Fujian, but possibly not native in the latter province. Somewhat similar in vegetative features to the introduced Taxodium distichum var. imbricatum, which is planted in similar habitats within the range of Glyptostrobus pensilis. The former differs in its flat leaves (of young branchlets), which lack a narrow wing along their trailing edges, and in its subulate, spreading leaves (of 1st year branchlets on older trees), which are softer, with incurved (not recurved) apices.
Wind-felled trees are used in constructing buildings, bridges and furniture. The roots have high buoyancy and are used to make life buoys, bottle corks, etc. Tannins extracted from the bark and the cone scales are used in tanning, dyeing, and fishing nets. Often planted in wet places for erosion control, as a windbreak, and because it is believed to bring good luck; consequently the tree is not normally deliberately felled by villagers.
(责任编辑:徐晔春)
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