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杉木Cunninghamia lanceolata

时间:2013-07-15 15:48来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
杉木,Cunninghamia lanceolata,杉,杉树








中文名(Chinese Name):杉木
学名(Scientific Name): Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.
英文名(English Common Name):Chinese fir
别名(Chinese Common Name):杉、杉树
异名(Synonym):Belis jaculifolia Salisb.;Belis lanceolata (Lamb.) Hoffmanns.;Cunninghamia sinensis R. Br. ex Rich. et A. Rich.;Cunninghamia unicanaliculata D. Y. Wang et H. L. Liu;Cunninghamia unicanaliculata var. pyramidalis D. Y. Wang et H. L. Liu;Pinus lanceolata Lamb.;Raxopitys cunninghamii J. Nelson;Cunninghamia lanceolata var. unicanaliculata (D. Y. Wang et H. L. liu) Silba;Abies lanceolata (Lamb.) Poir.;Cunninghamia jaculifolia (Salisb.) Druce;Cunninghamia sinensis var. prolifera Lemée et H. Lév.;Abies batavorum Siebold ex Carrière;Cunninghamia unicaniculata  
科属(Family & Genus):杉科(Taxodiaceae)杉木属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达30米,胸径可达2.5-3米;幼树树冠尖塔形,大树树冠圆锥形,树皮灰褐色,裂成长条片脱落,内皮淡红色;大枝平展,小枝近对生或轮生,常成二列状,幼枝绿色,光滑无毛;冬芽近圆形,有小型叶状的芽鳞,花芽圆球形、较大。叶在主枝上辐射伸展,侧枝之叶基部扭转成二列状,披针形或条状披针形,通常微弯、呈镰状,革质、竖硬,长2-6厘米,宽3-5毫米,边缘有细缺齿,先端渐尖,稀微钝,上面深绿色,有光泽,除先端及基部外两侧有窄气孔带,微具白粉或白粉不明显,下面淡绿色,沿中脉两侧各有1条白粉气孔带;老树之叶通常较窄短、较厚,上面无气孔线。雄球花圆锥状,长0.5-1.5厘米,有短梗,通常40余个簇生枝顶;雌球花单生或2-3(-4)个集生,绿色,苞鳞横椭圆形,先端急尖,上部边缘膜质,有不规则的细齿,长宽几相等,约3.5-4毫米。球果卵圆形,长2.5-5厘米,径3-4厘米;熟时苞鳞革质,棕黄色,三角状卵形,长约1.7厘米,宽1.5厘米,先端有坚硬的刺状尖头,边缘有不规则的锯齿,向外反卷或不反卷,背面的中肋两侧有2条稀疏气孔带;种鳞很小,先端三裂,侧裂较大,裂片分离,先端有不规则细锯齿,腹面着生3粒种子;种子扁平,遮盖着种鳞,长卵形或矩圆形,暗褐色,有光泽,两侧边缘有窄翅,长7-8毫米,宽5毫米;子叶2枚,发芽时出土。花期4月,球果10月下旬成熟。
分布(Distribution):为我国长江流域、秦岭以南地区栽培最广、生长快、经济价值高的用材树种。栽培区北起秦岭南坡、河南桐柏山、安徽大别山、江苏句容、宜兴,南至广东信宜、广西玉林、龙津、云南广南、麻栗坡、屏边、昆明、会泽、大理,东自江苏南部、浙江、福建西部山区,西至四川大渡河流域(泸定磨西面以东地区)及西南部安宁河流域。垂直分布的上限常随地形和气候条件的不同而有差异。在东部大别山区海拔700米以下,福建戴云山区1000米以下,在四川峨眉山海拔1800米以下,云南大理海拔2500米以下。越南也有分布。
用途(Use):木材黄白色,有时心材带淡红褐色,质较软,细致,有香气,纹理直,易加工,比重0.38,耐腐力强,不受白蚁蛀食。供建筑、桥梁、造船、矿柱,木桩、电杆、家具及木纤维工业原料等用。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lambert) Hooker, Bot. Mag. 54: t. 2743. 1827.
杉木 shan mu | Taxodiaceae  | Cunninghamia
Trees or shrubs to 50 m tall; trunk to 3 m d.b.h.; bark dark gray to dark brown, or reddish brown, longitudinally fissured, cracking into irregular flakes; crown pyramidal. Leaves glossy deep green adaxially, narrowly linear-lanceolate, straight or slightly falcate, 0.8-6.5(-7) cm × 1.5-5 mm, midvein green abaxially, 0.3-1.2 mm wide, flat with median longitudinal keel throughout, stomatal bands present on both surfaces, bands on adaxial surface 0.5-1.5 mm wide, of 7-28 rows of stomatal, white powdery or not, bands on abaxial surface 1.2-2.8 mm apart, 0.3-0.8(-1) mm from leaf margin, not or rarely white powdery, base decurrent, margin denticulate, sometimes indistinctly so, especially on old trees, with 18-55(-90) teeth per side, apex usually symmetric and spinescent, spine 0.3-2 mm. Pollen cone fascicles terminal, 1-3(-5) together, broadly obovoid, each of 8-20 cones, occasionally a few also around base of seed cone; peduncle 2-4 mm; cones narrowly oblong-conical. Seed cones terminal, 1-4 together, at pollination shortly cylindric-ovoid, ca. 12 × 8 mm, later becoming ovoid or subglobose, 1.8-4.5 × 1.2-4 cm; bracts glaucous or rather glossy, broadly ovate or triangular-ovate, base with short claw 1/5-1/2 × total length of bract, distal part gradually narrowed toward pointed apex, 1/14-1/5 × total length of bract. Seeds dark brown, oblong or narrowly ovate, 5-6 × ca. 4 mm, narrowly winged laterally. Pollination Jan-May, seed maturity Aug-Nov.
Mixed broad-leaved forests or forming small, pure stands, rocky hillsides, roadsides; 200-2800 m. Exact native distribution uncertain owing to widespread planting: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, C and N Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [?Cambodia, Laos, N Vietnam]
A very variable species: specimens occur with spinescent or obtuse leaf apices and with or without white stomatal bands on the adaxial leaf surface. The latter character is at least partly dependent on the age of the tree and the position of the leaf on the tree: leaves exposed to sunlight have less conspicuous adaxial stomatal bands than those in shade, as do leaves of old trees. Variants also occur with strongly glaucous leaves.
The most important fast-growing timber tree of the warm regions S of the Chang Jiang valley; it is propagated by seed, cuttings, or suckers. The wood is strongly resistant to rot, is not eaten by termites, and is easily worked; it is used in constructing buildings, bridges, ships, and lamp posts, in furniture manufacture, and for wood fiber.
(责任编辑:徐晔春)
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