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银杏Ginkgo biloba

时间:2013-07-15 15:44来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
银杏,Ginkgo biloba,公孙树








中文名(Chinese Name):银杏
学名(Scientific Name):Ginkgo biloba L.
英文名(English Common Name):maidenhair tree
别名(Chinese Common Name):公孙树
异名(Synonym):Salisburia adiantifolia Sm.;Salisburia biloba Hoffmanns.;Ginkgo macrophylla K.Koch  Pterophyllus salisburiensis J.Nelson, nom. illeg.;Salisburia ginkgo Rich., nom. illeg.;Salisburia macrophylla Reyn.;Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Makino;Ginkgo biloba var. fastigiata A.Henry;Ginkgo biloba f. microsperma Sugim.;Ginkgo biloba f. parvifolia Sugim.;Ginkgo biloba f. pendula (Van Geert) Beissn.;Salisburia adiantifolia var. pendula Van Geert;Salisburia adiantifolia var. laciniata Carrière;Salisburia adiantifolia var. variegata Carrière;Ginkgo biloba var. variegata (Carrière) Carrière;Ginkgo biloba var. laciniata (Carrière) Carrière;Ginkgo biloba var. pendula (Van Geert) Carrière;Ginkgo biloba f. fastigiata (A.Henry) Rehder;Ginkgo biloba f. laciniata (Carrière) Beissn.;Ginkgo biloba f. variegata (Carrière) Beissn.;Pterophyllus salisburiensis aurea J.Nelson;Ginkgo biloba f. aurea (J.Nelson) Beissn.;Ginkgo biloba var. aurea (J.Nelson) A.Henry  
科属(Family & Genus):银杏科(Ginkgoaceae)银杏属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达40米,胸径可达4米;幼树树皮浅纵裂,大树之皮呈灰褐色,深纵裂,粗糙;幼年及壮年树冠圆锥形,老则广卵形;枝近轮生,斜上伸展(雌株的大枝常较雄株开展);一年生的长枝淡褐黄色,二年生以上变为灰色,并有细纵裂纹;短枝密被叶痕,黑灰色,短枝上亦可长出长枝;冬芽黄褐色,常为卵圆形,先端钝尖。叶扇形,有长柄,淡绿色,无毛,有多数叉状并列细脉,顶端宽5-8厘米,在短枝上常具波状缺刻,在长枝上常2裂,基部宽楔形,柄长3-10〔多为5-8)厘米,幼树及萌生枝上的叶常较大而深裂(叶片长达13厘米,宽15厘米),有时裂片再分裂(这与较原始的化石种类之叶相似),叶在一年生长枝上螺旋状散生,在短枝上3-8叶呈簇生状,秋季落叶前变为黄色。球花雌雄异株,单性,生于短枝顶端的鳞片状叶的腋内,呈簇生状;雄球花柔荑花序状,下垂,雄蕊排列疏松,具短梗,花药常2个,长椭圆形,药室纵裂,药隔不发达;雌球花具长梗,梗端常分两叉,稀3-5叉或不分叉,每叉顶生一盘状珠座,胚珠着生其上,通常仅一个叉端的胚珠发育成种子,风媒传粉。种子具长梗,下垂,常为椭圆形、长倒卵形、卵圆形或近圆球形,长2.5-3.5厘米,径约2厘米,外种皮肉质,熟时黄色或橙黄色,外被白粉,有臭味;中种皮白色,骨质,具2-3条纵脊;内种皮膜质,淡红褐色;胚乳肉质,味甘略苦;子叶2枚,稀3枚,发芽时不出土,初生叶2-5片,宽条形,长约5毫米,宽约2毫米,先端微凹,第4或第5片起之后生叶扇形,先端具一深裂及不规则的波状缺刻,叶柄长0.9-2.5厘米;有主根。花期3-4月,种子9-10月成熟。
分布(Distribution):野生仅产浙江天目山,生于海拔500-1000米的天然林中。
用途(Use):观赏。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 2: 313. 1771.
银杏 yin xing | Ginkgoaceae  | Ginkgo
Salisburia adiantifolia Smith; S. biloba (Linnaeus) Hoffmansegg.
Trees to 40 m tall; trunk to 4 m d.b.h.; bark light gray or grayish brown, longitudinally fissured especially on old trees; crown conical initially, finally broadly ovoid; long branchlets pale brownish yellow initially, finally gray, internodes (1-) 1.5-4 cm; short branchlets blackish gray, with dense, irregularly elliptic leaf scars; winter buds yellowish brown, ovate. Leaves with petiole (3-)5-8(-10) cm; blade pale green, turning bright yellow in autumn, to 13 × 8(-15) cm on young trees but usually 5-8 cm wide, those on long branchlets divided by a deep, apical sinus into 2 lobes each further dissected, those on short branchlets with undulate distal and margin notched apex. Pollen cones ivory colored, 1.2-2.2 cm; pollen sacs boat-shaped, with widely gaping slit. Seeds elliptic, narrowly obovoid, ovoid, or subglobose, 2.5-3.5 × 1.6-2.2 cm; sarcotesta yellow, or orange-yellow glaucous, with rancid odor when ripe; sclerotesta white, with 2 or 3 longitudinal ridges; endotesta pale reddish brown. Pollination Mar-Apr, seed maturity Sep-Oct.
* Scattered in broad-leaved forests and valleys on acidic, well-drained, yellow loess (pH = 5-5.5); 300-1100 m. Perhaps native in NW Zhejiang (Tianmu Shan); widely and long cultivated below 2000 m in Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Henan, Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.
A relict species of the Mesozoic era, this and other (extinct) species of Ginkgo were formerly widespread throughout the world. The atavistic, leaf-marginal seeds of one cultivated clone may suggest an affinity with the extinct pteridosperms. Ginkgo biloba is now a rare species in the wild, but has been widely cultivated as an ornamental, probably for more than 3000 years. It provides shade and is tolerant of a wide range of climatic and edaphic conditions, including pollution. It is sacred to Buddhists and is often planted near temples. The wood is used in furniture making, the leaves are medicinal and used for pesticides, the roots are used as a cure for leucorrhea, the seeds are edible, and the bark yields tannin.
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