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黄花鹤顶兰Phaius flavus

时间:2018-06-25 11:45来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):黄花鹤顶兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Phaius flavus (Bl.) Lindl. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Bletia woodfordii Hook. Phaius maculatus Lindl. Phaius woodfo
中文名(Chinese Name):黄花鹤顶兰
学名(Scientific Name):Phaius flavus (Bl.) Lindl.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Bletia woodfordii Hook.  Phaius maculatus Lindl.  Phaius woodfordii (Hook.) Merr.  Limodorum flavum Blume  Phaius tankervilliae f. veronicae S. Y. Hu et Barretto  Phaius somai Hayata  Phaius undulatomarginata Hayata  Phaius bracteosus Rchb.f.  Phaius celebicus Schltr.  Phaius crispus Blume  Phaius flexuosus Blume  Phaius linearifolius Ames  Phaius minor Blume  Phaius platychilus Rchb.f.  Phaius undulatomarginatus Hayata  Limodorum crispum Reinw. ex Blume  Hecabe lutea Raf.  Phaius flavus f. punctatus (Ohwi) K.Nackej.  Phaius minor f. punctatus Ohwi  Phaius somae Hayata
科属Family & Genus):兰科,Orchidaceae,鹤顶兰属,Phaius
形态特征Description):假鳞茎卵状圆锥形,通常长5-6厘米,粗2.5-4厘米,具2-3节,被鞘。叶4-6枚,紧密互生于假鳞茎上部,通常具黄色斑块,长椭圆形或椭圆状披针形,长25厘米以上,宽5-10厘米,先端渐尖或急尖,基部收狭为长柄,具5-7条在背面隆起的脉,两面无毛,叶柄以下为互相包卷而形成假茎的鞘。花葶从假鳞茎基部或基部上方的节上发出,1-2个,直立,粗壮,圆柱形或多少扁圆柱形,不高出叶层之外,长达75厘米,不分枝或偶尔基部具分枝,无毛,疏生数枚长约3厘米的膜质鞘;总状花序长达20厘米,具数朵至20朵花;花苞片宿存,大而宽,披针形,长达3厘米,先端钝,膜质,无毛;花梗和子房长约3厘米;花柠檬黄色,上举,不甚张开,干后变靛蓝色;中萼片长圆状倒卵形,长3-4厘米,宽8-12毫米,先端钝,基部收狭,具7条脉,无毛;侧萼片斜长圆形,与中萼片等长,但稍狭,先端钝,具7条脉,无毛;花瓣长圆状倒披针形,约等长于萼片,比萼片狭或有时稍宽,先端钝,具7条脉,无毛;唇瓣贴生于蕊柱基部,与蕊柱分离,倒卵形,长2.5厘米,宽约2.2厘米,前端3裂,两面无毛;侧裂片近倒卵形,围抱蕊柱,先端圆形;中裂片近圆形,稍反卷,宽约1.2厘米,先端微凹,前端边缘褐色并具波状皱褶;唇盘具3-4条多少隆起的脊突;脊突褐色;距白色,长7-8毫米,粗约2毫米,末端钝;蕊柱白色,纤细,长约2厘米,上端扩大,正面两侧密被白色长柔毛;蕊喙肉质,半圆形,宽2-2.5毫米;药帽白色,在前端不伸长,先端锐尖;药床宽大;花粉团卵形,近等大,长2毫米。花期4-10月。
分布(Distribution):产福建(龙溪、建阳、崇安)、台湾、湖南北部(石门)、广东(罗浮山、饶平、翁源、怀集、信宜、乳源、连县、乐昌)、广西(平南、融水、兴安)、香港、海南、贵州(梵净山)、四川(雷波、天全、筠连、合江、南川、峨眉山等地)、云南(麻栗坡、富宁、景洪、维西和怒江河谷)和西藏东南部(墨脱)。生于海拔300-2500米的山坡林下阴湿处。也分布于斯里兰卡、尼泊尔、锡金、不丹、印度东北部、日本、菲律宾、老挝、越南、马来西亚、印度尼西亚和新几内亚岛。模式标本产于印度尼西亚(爪哇)。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 290, 291   
Phaius flavus (Blume) Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 128. 1831.
黄花鹤顶兰 huang hua he ding lan| Orchidaceae  | Phaius
Limodorum flavum Blume, Bijdr. 375. 1825; Bletia flava (Blume) Wallich ex Lindley; B. woodfordii Hooker; Phaius maculatus Lindley; P. minor Blume; P. somae Hayata; P. tancarvilleae (L’Héritier) Blume f. veronicae S. Y. Hu & Barretto; P. undulatomarginatus Hayata; P. woodfordii (Hooker) Merrill.
Plants 40-100 cm tall. Pseudobulb ovoid-conic, 5-10 × 1.5-4 cm. Leaves 4-8, on upper part of pseudobulb; blade normally green with yellow or white spots, ovate-elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 25-60 × 5-20 cm, glabrous, apex acuminate or acute. Inflorescences arising from basal or lower nodes of pseudobulb, normally not exceeding height of leaves, 50-90 cm, 8-25-flowered, glabrous; floral bracts persistent, ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-4 × 0.5-0.7 cm, glabrous. Flowers not widely opening, 4-7 cm in diam.; pedicel and ovary 2-3 cm, glabrous; sepals and petals pale yellow to mid-yellow, sepals often green tipped, often turning indigo-blue when dried. Sepals subsimilar, oblong-obovate, 2.5-4 × 0.7-1.5 cm, glabrous, apex obtuse to subacute. Petals oblong-elliptic, 2.5-4 × 0.7-1.5 cm, apex obtuse-subacute; lip yellow with orange or brown marks, apical margin brown, obovate, 2.5-4.5 × 2.2-4.5 cm, shallowly 3-lobed; lateral lobes subobovate, margin undulate, apex rounded-truncate; mid-lobe orbicular, undulate-crisped, apex emarginate; disk with 3 or 4 brown ridges, glabrous; spur slightly curved, white, conic, 0.5-0.8 × ca. 0.2 cm, apex obtuse. Column white, 1.5-2 cm, densely white pubescent ventrally; rostellum suborbicular; anther cap white. Fl. Apr-Oct. 2n = 38, 42.
Shaded and humid places in forests; 300-2000 m. N Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, N Hunan, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, NE India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
Plocoglottis sp. was reported by R. A. Rolfe to be found on Emei Shan in SC Sichuan based on a specimen collected by Faber (No. 947). Plocoglottis Blume is a genus similar in habit to Phaius, particularly P. flavus. We have collected orchids several times on Emei Shan and have found P. flavus but not Plocoglottis. It seems that the Plocoglottis species on Emei Shan may be a misidentification of this species.







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