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扇脉杓兰 Cypripedium japonicum

时间:2013-10-23 18:27来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):扇脉杓兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Cypripedium japonicum Thunb. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Cypripedium cathayenum S. S. Chien Cypripedium japonicum var.
中文名(Chinese Name):扇脉杓兰
学名(Scientific Name):Cypripedium japonicum Thunb.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Cypripedium cathayenum S. S. Chien  Cypripedium japonicum var. glabrum M.Suzuki
科属(Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)杓兰属
形态特征(Description):植株高35-55厘米,具较细长的、横走的根状茎;根状茎直径3-4毫米,有较长的节间。茎直立,被褐色长柔毛,基部具数枚鞘,顶端生叶。叶通常2枚,近对生,位于植株近中部处,极罕有3枚叶互生的;叶片扇形,长10-16厘米,宽10-21厘米,上半部边缘呈钝波状,基部近楔形,具扇形辐射状脉直达边缘,两面在近基部处均被长柔毛,边缘具细缘毛。花序顶生,具1花;花序柄亦被褐色长柔毛;花苞片叶状,菱形或卵状披针形,长2.5-5厘米,宽1-2(-3)厘米,两面无毛,边缘具细缘毛;花梗和子房长2-3厘米,密被长柔毛;花俯垂;萼片和花瓣淡黄绿色,基部多少有紫色斑点,唇瓣淡黄绿色至淡紫白色,多少有紫红色斑点和条纹;中萼片狭椭圆形或狭椭圆状披针形,长4.5-5.5厘米,宽1.5-2厘米,先端渐尖,无毛;合萼片与中萼片相似,长4-5厘米,宽1.5-2.5厘米,先端2浅裂;花瓣斜披针形,长4-5厘米,宽1-1.2厘米,先端渐尖,内表面基部具长柔毛;唇瓣下垂,囊状,近椭圆形或倒卵形,长4-5厘米,宽3-3.5厘米;囊口略狭长并位于前方,周围有明显凹槽并呈波浪状齿缺;退化雄蕊椭圆形,长约1厘米,宽6-7毫米,基部有短耳。蒴果近纺锤形,长4.5-5厘米,宽1.2厘米,疏被微柔毛。花期4-5月,果期6-10月。
分布(Distribution):产陕西、甘肃、安徽、浙江、江西、湖北、湖南、四川和贵州。生于海拔1000~2000米的林下、灌木林下、林缘、溪谷旁、荫蔽山坡等湿润和腐殖质丰富的土壤上。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 23, 29      
Cypripedium japonicum Thunberg in Murray, Syst. Veg., ed. 14. 817. 1784.
扇脉杓兰 shan mai shao lan| Orchidaceae  | Cypripedium
Cypripedium cathayanum S. S. Chien.
Plants 35-55 cm tall, with a relatively slender, creeping rhizome 3-4 mm in diam. Stem erect, brown tomentose, with several sheaths in lower part and 2 subopposite or rarely 3 nearly alternate leaves near middle. Leaf blade flabellate, 10-16 × 10-21 cm, both surfaces hairy toward base, with many radiating veins reaching margin of apical half, base subcuneate, margin undulate, minutely ciliate. Inflorescence terminal, with 1 flower; peduncle brown tomentose; floral bracts foliaceous, rhombic or ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-5 × 1-2(-3) cm, glabrous, minutely ciliate; pedicel and ovary 2-3 cm, densely hairy. Flowers pendulous; sepals and petals greenish yellow, base ± spotted with purple; lip yellowish pink to whitish, ± marked with purplish red spots and stripes. Dorsal sepal narrowly elliptic or narrowly elliptic-lanceolate, 4.5-5.5 × 1.5-2 cm, glabrous, apex acuminate; synsepal similar to dorsal sepal, 4-5 × 1.5-2.5 cm, apex shallowly 2-lobed. Petals obliquely lanceolate, 4-5 × 1-1.2 cm, villous toward adaxial base, apex acuminate; lip pendulous, pouched, subellipsoid or obovoid, 4-5 × 3-3.5 cm, strongly grooved-margined around mouth. Staminode elliptic, ca. 10 × 6-7 mm, base shortly auriculate. Capsule subfusiform, 4.5-5 × ca. 1.2 cm, sparsely puberulent. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Jun-Oct. 2n = 20.
Moist and humus-rich soils in forests, thickets, forest margins, shaded slopes; 1000-2000 m. Anhui, S Gansu, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang [Japan].


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