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墨兰Cymbidium sinense

时间:2013-10-23 17:21来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):墨兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Cymbidium sinense (Jackson ex Andr.) Willd. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Cymbidium sinense var. albo-jucundissimum (Hayata)
中文名(Chinese Name):墨兰
学名(Scientific Name):Cymbidium sinense (Jackson ex Andr.) Willd.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Cymbidium sinense var. albo-jucundissimum (Hayata) Masam.  Cymbidium sinense var. album T. K. Yen  Cymbidium sinense var. autumnale Y. S. Wu  Cymbidium sinense f. pallidiflorum S. S. Ying  Cymbidium sinense f. taiwanianum S. S. Ying  Cymbidium albojucundissimum Hayata  Cymbidium sinense var. margicoloratum Hayata  Cymbidium hoosai Makino  Cymbidium sinense var. bellum T. K. Yen  Cymbidium fragrans Salisb.  Cymbidium chinense Heynh.  Cymbidium sinense f. albo-jucundissimum (Hayata) Fukuy.  Epidendrum sinense Jacks. ex Andrews  Cymbidium sinense f. aureomarginatum T. K. Yen  Cymbidium sinense f. viridiflorum T. K. Yen  Cymbidium ensifolium var. munronianum King et Pantl.  Cymbidium hoosai f. hakuran Makino  Cymbidium sinense var. pallidiflorum S.S.Ying  Cymbidium sinense var. taiwanianum S.S.Ying  Cymbidium sinense var. albojucundissimum (Hayata) Masam.  Wutongshania guangdongensis Z.J.Liu & J.N.Zhang  Cymbidium sinense f. albojucundissimum (Hayata) Fukuy.  Cymbidium sinense f. margicoloratum (Hayata) Fukuy.
科属Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)兰属
形态特征Description):地生植物;假鳞茎卵球形,长2.5-6厘米,宽1.5-2.5厘米,包藏于叶基之内。叶3-5枚,带形,近薄革质,暗绿色,长45-80(-110)厘米,宽(1.5-) 2-3厘米,有光泽,关节位于距基部3.5-7厘米处。花葶从假鳞茎基部发出,直立,较粗壮,长(40-)50-90厘米,一般略长于叶;总状花序具10-20朵或更多的花;花苞片除最下面的1枚长于1厘米外,其余的长4-8毫米;花梗和子房长2-2.5厘米;花的色泽变化较大,较常为暗紫色或紫褐色而具浅色唇瓣,也有黄绿色、桃红色或白色的,一般有较浓的香气;萼片狭长圆形或狭椭圆形,长2. 2-3 (-3.5)厘米,宽5-7毫米;花瓣近狭卵形,长2-2. 7厘米,宽6-10毫米;唇瓣近卵状长圆形,宽1.7-2.5(-3)厘米,不明显3裂;侧裂片直立,多少围抱蕊柱,具乳突状短柔毛;中裂片较大,外弯,亦有类似的乳突状短柔毛,边缘略波状;唇盘上2条纵褶片从基部延伸至中裂片基部,上半部向内倾斜并靠合,形成短管;蕊柱长1.2-1.5厘米,稍向前弯曲,两侧有狭翅;花粉团4个,成2对,宽卵形。蒴果狭椭圆形,长6-7厘米,宽1.5-2厘米。花期10月至次年3月。
分布(Distribution):产我国中南部,生于海拔300~2000米林下、灌木林中或溪谷旁湿润但排水良好的荫蔽处。东南亚及日本琉球群岛也有分布。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 260, 263, 274  
Cymbidium sinense (Jackson ex Andrews) Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 4: 111. 1805.
墨兰 mo lan| Orchidaceae  | Cymbidium
Epidendrum sinense Jackson ex Andrews, Bot. Repos. 3: ad t. 216. 1802; Cymbidium albojucundissimum Hayata; C. chinense Heynhold; C. fragrans Salisbury; C. hoosai Makino; C. sinense f. albojucundissimum (Hayata) Fukuyama; C. sinense var. albojucundissimum (Hayata) Masamune; C. sinense var. album T. K. Yen; C. sinense f. aureomarginatum T. K. Yen; C. sinense var. autumnale Y. S. Wu; C. sinense var. bellum T. K. Yen; C. sinense var. margicoloratum Hayata; C. sinense f. pallidiflorum S. S. Ying; C. sinense f. taiwanianum S. S. Ying; C. sinense f. viridiflorum T. K. Yen; Wutongshania guangdongensis Z. J. Liu & J. N. Zhang.
Plants terrestrial, autotrophic. Pseudobulbs ovoid, 2.5-6 × 1.5-2.5 cm, enclosed in leaf bases. Leaves 3-5, deep green, lorate, 45-110(-200) × (1.5-)2-3 cm, thinly leathery, articulate 3.5-7 cm from base. Inflorescence arising from base of pseudobulb, erect, somewhat robust, (40-)50-90 cm, usually slightly longer than leaves; rachis 10-20- or more flowered; floral bracts 4-8 mm and mostly less than 1/2 length of ovary, though basal bract more than 10 mm. Flowers usually strongly fragrant, variable in color, usually dark purple or purplish brown with a paler lip; pedicel and ovary 20-25 mm. Sepals narrowly oblong or narrowly elliptic, 22-35 × 5-7 mm, apex acute. Petals nearly narrowly ovate, 20-27 × 6-10 mm, apex acute; lip ovate-oblong, 17-25(-30) mm, not fused to basal margins of column, obscurely 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect, loosely clasping column; mid-lobe recurved, oblong-ovate, ca. 14 × 10 mm, margin slightly undulate; disk minutely papillate-pubescent, with 2 longitudinal lamellae extending from near base of lip to base of mid-lobe; lamellae converging in their apical half and forming a short tube. Column slightly arcuate, 12-15 mm, narrowly winged; pollinia 4, in 2 pairs, broadly ovoid. Capsule narrowly ellipsoid, 60-70 × 15-20 mm. Fl. (Oct-)Nov-Mar, fr. Dec-May. 2n = 40.
Forests, wet and well-drained shaded places in thickets along streamsides; 300-2000 m. S Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, SW Guizhou, Hainan, S Jiangxi, SC Sichuan (Emei Shan), Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].






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