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钩距虾脊兰Calanthe graciliflora

时间:2013-10-23 16:07来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):钩距虾脊兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Calanthe graciliflora Hayata 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 纤花根节兰,细花根节兰 异名( Synonym ): Calanthe hamata Hand.-Mazz. Calanthe
中文名(Chinese Name):钩距虾脊兰
学名(Scientific Name):Calanthe graciliflora Hayata
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):纤花根节兰,细花根节兰
异名(Synonym):Calanthe hamata Hand.-Mazz.  Calanthe striata (Sw.) R. Br. :S. Y. Hu
科属Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)虾脊兰属
形态特征Description):根状茎不明显。假鳞茎短,近卵球形,粗约2厘米,具3-4枚鞘和3-4枚叶。假茎长5-18厘米,粗约1.5厘米。叶在花期尚未完全展开,椭圆形或椭圆状披针形,长达33厘米,宽5.5-10厘米,先端急尖或锐尖,基部收狭为长达10厘米的柄,两面无毛。花葶出自假茎上端的叶丛间,长达70厘米,高出叶层之外,密被短毛;花序柄常具1枚鳞片状的鞘;鞘宽卵形,长约6毫米,先端渐尖,无毛;总状花序长达32厘米,疏生多数花,无毛;花梗白色,连同绿色的子房长15-20毫米,弧形弯曲,密被短毛;花张开;萼片和花瓣在背面褐色,内面淡黄色;中萼片近椭圆形,长10-15毫米,宽5-6毫米,先端锐尖,基部收狭,具(3-)4-5条脉,无毛或背面疏被短毛;侧萼片近似于中萼片,但稍狭;花瓣倒卵状披针形,长9-13毫米,宽3-4毫米,先端锐尖,基部具短爪,具3-4条脉,无毛;唇瓣浅白色,3裂;侧裂片稍斜的卵状楔形,长约4毫米,基部约1/3与蕊柱翅的外侧边缘合生,先端圆钝或斜截形;中裂片近方形或倒卵形,长约4毫米,宽3毫米,先端扩大,近截形并微凹,在凹处具短尖;唇盘上具4个褐色斑点和3条平行的龙骨状脊;龙骨状脊肉质,终止于中裂片的中部,其末端呈三角形隆起;距圆筒形,长10-13毫米,常钩曲,末端变狭,外面疏被短毛,内面密被短毛;蕊柱长约4毫米,无毛;蕊柱翅下延到唇瓣基部并与唇盘两侧的龙骨状脊相连接;蕊喙2裂,裂片三角形,长约1毫米,先端尖牙齿状,药帽在前端骤然收狭而呈喙状;花粉团棒状,等大,长约2毫米,具明显的花粉团柄;粘盘近长圆形,长约1毫米。花期3-5月。
分布(Distribution):产安徽、浙江、江西、台湾、湖北、湖南(桑植、新宁、龙山)、广东、香港、广西、四川、贵州和云南。生于海拔600-1500米的山谷溪边、林下等阴湿处。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 294, 307
Calanthe graciliflora Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo. 30(1): 329. 1911.
钩距虾脊兰 gou ju xia ji lan | Orchidaceae  | Calanthe
Plants to 70 cm tall. Rhizome inconspicuous. Pseudobulbs subovoid, short, ca. 2 cm in diam., with 3 or 4 sheaths. Leaves 3 or 4, well developed and spreading completely at anthesis, not deciduous; blade elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, ca. 33 × 5.5-10 cm, apex acute; petiole-like base ca. 10 cm, usually forming a pseudostem 5-18 cm long and ca. 1.5 cm in diam. Scape arising from leaf axil, to 70 cm, densely puberulent; rachis to 32 cm, laxly many flowered; floral bracts persistent, lanceolate, 7-10 mm, glabrous. Flowers yellowish brown, with white lip; pedicel and ovary 15-20 mm, densely puberulent. Sepals reflexed, similar, subelliptic, 12-13 × 5-6 mm, glabrous, (3 or)4- or 5-veined, apex acute; lateral sepals slightly narrower than dorsal sepal. Petals obovate-lanceolate, 9-13 × 3-4 mm, glabrous, 3- or 4-veined, base shortly clawed, apex acute; lip adnate to entire length of column wings, ca. 10 × 10 mm, 3-lobed; lateral lobes obovate-cuneate, slightly oblique, ca. 4 mm, apex obtuse-rounded or obliquely truncate; mid-lobe subsquare, obovate, or transversely oblong, ca. 4 × 3 mm, apex dilated, emarginate and mucronate in sinus; disk with 4 brown spots and 3 parallel ridges; ridges fleshy, extending to middle of mid-lobe, triangular, becoming taller toward their apices; spur curved or straight, cylindric, 10-18 mm, outside sparsely puberulent, inside densely puberulent, apex attenuate. Column ca. 4 mm, glabrous, wings decurrent to lip and connecting to ridges on disk; rostellum 2-lobed, lobes ca. 1 mm; anther cap beaked; pollinia clavate, equal in size, ca. 2 mm, with conspicuous caudicles; viscidium suboblong, ca. 1 mm. 2n = 40*.
● Shaded and damp places in forests, streamsides, along valleys; 600-2400 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, SW Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Yunnan, Zhejiang.




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