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虾脊兰 Calanthe discolor

时间:2013-10-23 16:04来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):虾脊兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Calanthe discolor Lindl. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Calanthe cheniana Hand.-Mazz. Calanthe esquirolei Schltr. Alismorki
中文名(Chinese Name):虾脊兰
学名(Scientific Name):Calanthe discolor Lindl.   
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Calanthe cheniana Hand.-Mazz.  Calanthe esquirolei Schltr.  Alismorkis discolor (Lindl.) Kuntze  Calanthe discolor f. kanashiroi (Fukuy.) K.Nakaj.  Calanthe discolor var. kanashiroi Fukuy.  Calanthe discolor f. quinquelamellata M.Hiroe  Calanthe tyoh-harae Makino  Calanthe variegata Scheidw.  Alismorchis discolor (Lindl.) Kuntze
科属(Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)虾脊兰属
形态特征(Description):根状茎不甚明显。假鳞茎粗短,近圆锥形,粗约1厘米,具3-4枚鞘和3枚叶。假茎长6-10厘米,粗达2厘米。叶在花期全部未展开,倒卵状长圆形至椭圆状长圆形,长达25厘米,宽4-9厘米,先端急尖或锐尖,基部收狭为长4-9厘米的柄,背面密被短毛。花葶从假茎上端的叶间抽出,长18-30厘米,密被短毛,总状花序长6-8厘米,疏生约10朵花;花苞片宿存,膜质,卵状披针形,长4-7毫米,先端渐尖或急尖,近无毛;花梗和子房长6-13毫米,弧曲,密被短毛,子房棒状;萼片和花瓣褐紫色;中萼片稍斜的椭圆形,长11-13毫米,中部宽6-7毫米,先端急尖,具5条脉,背面中部以下被短毛;侧萼片相似于中萼片;花瓣近长圆形或倒披针形,与萼片等长,或有时稍短,中部宽3.5-5毫米,先端稍钝,基部收狭,具3条脉,两侧的2条常分支,无毛;唇瓣白色,轮廓为扇形,与整个蕊柱翅合生,约等长于萼片,3深裂;侧裂片镰状倒卵形或楔状倒卵形,比中裂片大,先端向中裂片弯曲,基部约一半合生在蕊柱翅的外侧边缘;中裂片倒卵状楔形,先端深凹缺,前端边缘有时具不整齐的齿;唇盘上具3条膜片状褶片;褶片平直,全缘,延伸到中裂片的中部,前端呈三角形隆起;距圆筒形,伸直或稍弯曲,长5-10毫米,向末端变狭,外面疏被短毛;蕊柱长约4毫米,上端扩大,蕊柱翅下延到唇瓣基部;蕊喙2裂;裂片牙齿状三角形,长约0.6毫米,先端急尖;药帽在前端稍收狭,先端近截形;花粉团棒状,长约1.8毫米。花期4-5月。
分布(Distribution):产浙江、江苏、福建、湖北、广东和贵州。生于海拔780~1500米的常绿阔叶林下。日本也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 294, 306   
Calanthe discolor Lindley, Sert. Orchid. ad t. 9. 1838.
虾脊兰 xia ji lan| Orchidaceae  | Calanthe
Alismorkis discolor (Lindley) Kuntze; Calanthe cheniana Handel-Mazzetti; C. esquirolei Schlechter.
Plants 40-65 cm tall. Rhizome inconspicuous. Pseudobulbs subconic, small, ca. 1 cm in diam., with 3 or 4 sheaths. Leaves 3, not well developed at anthesis, not deciduous; blade obovate-oblong to elliptic-oblong, 13-25 × 3-9 cm, abaxially densely puberulent, apex acute; petiole-like base 3-9 cm, usually forming a pseudostem 6-10 cm long and ca. 2 cm in diam. Scapes 1 or 2, arising from leaf axil, 18-30 cm, densely puberulent; rachis 6-8 cm, laxly 6-10-flowered; floral bracts persistent, ovate-lanceolate, 4-7 mm, nearly glabrous. Flowers brownish purple, with white lip; pedicel and ovary 6-13 mm, densely puberulent. Sepals similar, elliptic, slightly oblique, 11-13 × 6-7 mm, abaxially puberulent below middle, 5-veined, apex acute. Petals suboblong or oblanceolate, 11-12 × 3.5-5 mm, glabrous, 3-veined, apex slightly obtuse; lip adnate to entire length of column wings, flabellate in outline, 10-13 × ca. 18 mm, deeply 3-lobed; lateral lobes falcate-obovate or cuneate-obovate, 9-10 × 6-9 mm, larger than mid-lobe, apex truncate-obtuse and incurved toward mid-lobe; mid-lobe obovate-cuneate, 7-8 × ca. 6 mm, apical margin sometimes irregularly dentate, apex emarginate; disk with 3 membranous, triangular lamellae extending to middle of mid-lobe; spur cylindric, 5-10 mm, outside sparsely puberulent, attenuate toward apex. Column ca. 4 mm, dilated at apex, wings decurrent to base of lip; rostellum 2-lobed; lobes ca. 0.6 mm; pollinia clavate, ca. 1.8 mm. Fl. Apr-May. 2n = 40.
Evergreen broad-leaved forests; 800-1500 m. Anhui, N Fujian, Guangdong, S Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea].




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