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密花石豆兰Bulbophyllum odoratissimum

时间:2013-10-23 15:55来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):密花石豆兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (Sm.) Lindl. ex Hook.f. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Bulbophyllum congestrum Rolfe Stelis
中文名(Chinese Name):密花石豆兰
学名(Scientific Name):Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (Sm.) Lindl. ex Hook.f.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Bulbophyllum congestrum Rolfe  Stelis odoratissima J. E. Sm.  Bulbophyllum hyacinthiodorum W. W. Sm.  Cirrhopetalum trichocephalum Schltr.  Tribrachia odoratissima (Sm.) Lindl.  Phyllorkis odoratissima (Sm.) Kuntze
科属(Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)石豆兰属
形态特征(Description):根状茎粗2-4毫米,分枝,被筒状膜质鞘,在每相距4-8厘米处生1个假鳞茎。根成束,分枝,出自生有假鳞茎的节上。假鳞茎近圆柱形,直立,长2.5-5厘米,中部通常粗3-6毫米,有时达9毫米,顶生1枚叶,幼时在基部被3-4枚鞘。叶革质,长圆形,长4-13.5厘米,宽0.8-2.6厘米,先端钝并且稍凹入,基部收窄,近无柄。花葶淡黄绿色,从假鳞茎基部发出,1-2个,直立,比叶长或短,最长达14厘米;总状花序缩短呈伞状,常点垂,密生10余朵花;花序柄粗1-3毫米,被3-4枚膜质鞘;鞘宽筒状,宽松地抱于花序柄,长8-10毫米,从基部向先端扩大;鞘口斜截形,稍张开,淡白色;花苞片膜质,卵状披针形,凹的,比花梗连同子房长,长7-10毫米,先端渐尖,具3条脉,淡白色;花稍有香气,初时萼片和花瓣白色,以后萼片和花瓣的中部以上转变为橘黄色;萼片离生,质地较厚,披针形,从基部上方向先端骤然收窄,其两侧边缘内卷呈窄筒状或钻状,先端钝或稍尖;中萼片凹的,卵形或卵状披针形,长3-7毫米,基部宽1.5毫米,具3条脉;侧萼片比中萼片长,长4-14毫米,基部宽约2毫米,常具3条脉;花瓣质地较薄,白色,近卵形或椭圆形,长1-2毫米,中部宽1-1.5毫米,先端稍钝,具1条脉,有时3条,但仅中肋到达先端;唇瓣橘红色,肉质,舌形,稍向外下弯,基部具短爪并且与蕊柱足末端连接,先端钝,边缘具细乳突或白色腺毛,上面具2条密生细乳突的龙骨脊;蕊柱粗短,长约1毫米;蕊柱齿短钝,呈三角形或牙齿状,与药帽近等高,长约0.2毫米,先端稍锐尖;蕊柱足橘红色,长约1毫米,其分离部分长约0.5毫米;药帽近半球形或心形,前端稍收窄,先端下弯,上面被细乳突。花期4-8月。
分布(Distribution):产福建、广东、香港、广西、四川、云南、西藏。生于海拔200~2300米的混交林中树干上或山谷岩石上。东南亚也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 411, 414
Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (Smith) Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 55. 1830.
密花石豆兰 mi hua shi dou lan    | Orchidaceae  | Bulbophyllum
Stelis odoratissima Smith in Rees, Cycl. 34: Stelis no. 12. 1814; Bulbophyllum congestum Rolfe; B. hyacinthiodorum W. W. Smith; B. trichocephalum (Schlechter) Tang & F. T. Wang; B. trichocephalum var. wallongense Agrawala, Sabapathy & H. J. Chowdhery; Cirrhopetalum trichocephalum Schlechter.
Rhizome creeping or straggling, 2-4 mm in diam., branched, covered with membranous tubular sheaths, rooting from base of pseudobulbs, roots spreading. Pseudobulbs 4-8 cm apart from each other, subcylindric, 2.5-5 cm, 3-6(-9) mm in diam., with a terminal leaf. Leaf subsessile; blade oblong, 4-13.5 × 0.8-2.6 cm, leathery, apex obtuse and slightly emarginate. Scapes 1 or 2, yellowish green, from base of pseudobulb, erect, to 14 cm; raceme often nodding, shortened, umbel-like, densely more than 10-flowered; peduncle 1-3 mm in diam., with 3 or 4 tubular sheaths 8-10 mm; floral bracts whitish, ovate-lanceolate, 7-10 mm, membranous, apex acuminate. Pedicel and ovary shorter than floral bracts. Flowers slightly fragrant; sepals and petals white, later turning into orange in apical half; lip tangerine. Sepals free, thickly textured; dorsal sepal ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 3-7 × ca. 1.5 mm; lateral sepals lanceolate, 4-14 × ca. 2 mm, margins incurved from middle to apex and tubular or subulate in shape, apex obtuse or subacute. Petals subovate or elliptic, 1-2 × 1-1.5 mm, thinly textured, apex subobtuse; lip slightly recurved, ligulate, fleshy, margins with white glandular hairs, adaxially with 2 densely minutely glandular-hairy ridges, base with a short claw attached to end of column foot, apex obtuse. Column ca. 1 mm, stout; stelidia ca. 0.2 mm; foot ca. 1 mm, with free part ca. 0.5 mm; anther cap nearly subglobose or cordate, finely papillate. Fl. Apr-Aug. 2n = 38.
Tree trunks in mixed forests, rocks along valleys; 200-2400 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, S Sichuan, SE Xizang, W to SE Yunnan [Bhutan, NE India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].




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