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榆叶梅 Amygdalus triloba

时间:2013-11-06 12:44来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名 ( Chinese Name ): 榆叶梅 学名 ( Scientific Name ): Amygdalus triloba (Lindl.) Ricker 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名 ( Synonym ): Amygdalus triloba var. plena (Dippel) S. Q. Nie Amygda
中文名Chinese Name):榆叶梅
学名Scientific Name):Amygdalus triloba (Lindl.) Ricker
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名Synonym):Amygdalus triloba var. plena (Dippel) S. Q. Nie  Amygdalus triloba var. truncata (Kom.) S. Q. Nie  Prunus triloba var. truncata Kom.  Prunus triloba Lindl.  Prunus triloba var. plena Dippel  Cerasus triloba var. truncata (Kom.) A. I. Baranov et Liou  Cerasus triloba (Lindl.) A. I. Baranov et Liou  Cerasus triloba var. plena (Dippel) A. I. Baranov et Liou  Amygdalus triloba f. plena (Dippel) Zamyslova  Amygdalus lindleyi Carrière
科属Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)桃属
形态特征Description):灌木稀小乔木,高2-3米;枝条开展,具多数短小枝;小枝灰色,一年生枝灰褐色,无毛或幼时微被短柔毛;冬芽短小,长2-3毫米。短枝上的叶常簇生,一年生枝上的叶互生;叶片宽椭圆形至倒卵形,长2-6厘米,宽1.5-3(4)厘米,先端短渐尖,常3裂,基部宽楔形,上面具疏柔毛或无毛,下面被短柔毛,叶边具粗锯齿或重锯齿;叶柄长5-10毫米,被短柔毛。花1-2朵,先于叶开放,直径2-3厘米;花梗长4-8毫米;萼筒宽钟形,长3-5毫米,无毛或幼时微具毛;萼片卵形或卵状披针形,无毛,近先端疏生小锯齿;花瓣近圆形或宽倒卵形,长6-10毫米,先端圆钝,有时微凹,粉红色;雄蕊约25-30,短于花瓣;子房密被短柔毛,花柱稍长于雄蕊。果实近球形,直径1-1.8厘米,顶端具短小尖头,红色,外被短柔毛;果梗长5-10毫米;果肉薄,成熟时开裂;核近球形,具厚硬壳,直径1-1.6厘米,两侧几不压扁,顶端圆钝,表面具不整齐的网纹。花期4-5月,果期5-7月。
分布(Distribution):产东北、内蒙古、河北、山西、陕西、甘肃、山东、江西、江苏、浙江等省区,生于低至中海拔的坡地或沟旁乔、灌木林下或林缘。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 392     
Amygdalus triloba (Lindley) Ricker, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 30: 18. 1917.
榆叶梅 yu ye mei| Rosaceae  | Amygdalus
Prunus triloba Lindley, Gard. Chron. 1857: 268. 1857; Amygdalus triloba var. plena (Dippel) S. Q. Nie; A. triloba var. truncata (Komarov) S. Q. Nie; Cerasus triloba A. I. Baranov & Liou; C. triloba var. plena (Dippel) A. I. Baranov & Liou; C. triloba var. truncata (Komarov) A. I. Baranov & Liou; Prunus triloba var. plena Dippel; P. triloba var. truncata Komarov.
Shrubs, rarely trees, 2–3 m tall. Branches spreading, much branched; current year’s branchlets gray to grayish black; previous year’s branchlets grayish brown, glabrous or slightly pubescent when young, glabrescent. Winter buds brown, 2–3 mm, apex acute; scale margins pubescent. Leaves on short branchlets often fasciculate, those on previous year’s branches alternate; petiole 5–10 mm, pubescent; leaf blade broadly elliptic to obovate, 2–6 × 1.5–3(–4) cm, abaxially pubescent, adaxially pilose or glabrous, base broadly cuneate, margin coarsely serrate or biserrate, apex shortly acuminate and usually 3-lobed. Flowers 1 or 2, opening before leaves, 2–3 cm in diam. Pedicel 4–8 mm, 5–10 mm in fruit, glabrous or initially puberulous. Hypanthium broadly campanulate, 3–5 mm, outside glabrous or puberulous. Sepals ovate to ovate-lanceolate, nearly as long as hypanthium, outside glabrous or puberulous, margin sparsely minutely serrate near apex. Petals pink, suborbicular to broadly obovate, 6–10 mm, apex obtuse to emarginate. Stamens 25–30, shorter than petals. Ovary densely pubescent. Style somewhat longer than stamens. Drupe subglobose, 1–1.8 cm in diam., pubescent, apex mucronulate; mesocarp thin, splitting when ripe; endocarp subglobose, ± uncompressed on both sides, 1–1.6 cm in diam., surface irregularly reticulate, apex obtuse. Fl. Apr–May, fr. May–Jul.
Forests, thickets; 600--2500 m. Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Zhejiang [Korea, Russia].
Single- and double-flowered cultivars are cultivated as garden ornamentals.
 




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