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歪头菜Vicia unijuga

时间:2018-08-14 08:28来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):歪头菜 学名( Scientific Name ): Vicia unijuga A. Braun 英文名( English Common Name ): two-leaf vetch 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 山豌豆、两叶豆苗 异名( Synonym ): Ervum unijugum Alef. Vicia faurice va
中文名(Chinese Name):歪头菜
学名(Scientific Name):Vicia unijuga A. Braun
英文名(English Common Name):two-leaf vetch
别名(Chinese Common Name):山豌豆、两叶豆苗
异名(Synonym):Ervum unijugum Alef.  Vicia faurice var. unijuga Matsum.  Orobus lathyroides L.  Vicia unijuga var. angustifolia Nakai  Vicia unijuga var. bracteata Franch. et Sav.  Vicia unijuga var. breviramea Nakai  Vicia lathyroides L.  Lathyrus messerschmidii Franch. et Sav.  Vicia bifolia Nakai  Lathyrus messerschmidtii Franch. & Sav.  Vicia unijuga subsp. minor (Nakai) Y.N. Lee  Vicia unijuga var. ciliata H. Lév.  Vicia unijuga var. integristipula H. Lév.  Vicia unijuga var. kaussanensis H. Lév.  Vicia unijuga var. lobata Seok & B.H. Choi  Vicia unijuga var. minor Nakai  Vicia unijuga var. ouensanensis H. Lév.
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae野豌豆属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高 (15) 40-100 (-180) 厘米。根茎粗壮近木质,主根长达8-9厘米,直径2.5厘米,须根发达,表皮黑褐色。通常数茎丛生,具棱,疏被柔毛,老时渐脱落,茎基部表皮红褐色或紫褐红色。叶轴末端为细刺尖头;偶见卷须,托叶戟形或近披针形,长0.8-2厘米,宽3-5毫米,边缘有不规则齿蚀状;小叶一对,卵状披针形或近菱形,长 (1.5) 3-7 (-11) 厘米,宽1.5-4 (-5) 厘米,先端渐尖,边缘具小齿状,基部楔形,两面均疏被微柔毛。总状花序单一稀有分支呈圆锥状复总状花序,明显长于叶,长4.5-7厘米;花8-20朵一面向密集于花序轴上部;花萼紫色,斜钟状或钟状,长约0.4厘米,直径0.2-0.3厘米,无毛或近无毛,萼齿明显短于萼筒;花冠蓝紫色、紫红色或淡蓝色长1-1.6厘米,旗瓣倒提琴形,中部缢缩,先端圆有凹,长1.1-1.5厘米,宽0.8-1厘米,翼瓣先端钝圆,长1.3-1.4厘米,宽0.4厘米,龙骨瓣短于翼瓣,子房线形,无毛,胚珠2-8,具子房柄,花柱上部四周被毛。荚果扁、长圆形,长2-3.5厘米,宽0.5-0.7厘米,无毛,表皮棕黄色,近革质,两端渐尖,先端具喙,成熟时腹背开裂,果瓣扭曲。种子3-7,扁圆球形,直径0.2-0.3厘米,种皮黑褐色,革质,种脐长相当于种子周长1/4。花期6-7月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产东北、华北、华东、西南。生于低海拔至4000米山地、林缘、草地、沟边及灌丛。朝鲜、日本、蒙古、俄罗斯均有。
用途(Use):本种为优良牧草、牲畜喜食。嫩时亦可为蔬菜。全草药用,有补虚、调肝、理气、止痛等功效。青海民间用于治疗高血压及肝病。本种生长旺盛,广布荒草坡,亦用于水土保持及绿肥,为早春密源植物之一。
引自植物志英文版: FOC Vol. 10 Page 560, 569
Vicia unijuga A. Braun in A. Braun et al., Index Sem. Hort. Berol. 1853: 22. 1853.
歪头菜 wai tou cai | Fabaceae  | Vicia
Orobus lathyroides Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 728. 1753, not Vicia lathyroides Linnaeus (1753); Ervum unijugum (A. Braun) Alefeld; Lathyrus messerschmidii Franchet & Savatier; Vicia unijuga f. albiflora Nakai; V. unijuga var. angustifolia Nakai; V. unijuga var. breviramea Nakai; V. unijuga var. ciliata H. Lé­veillé; V. unijuga var. integristipula H. Léveillé; V. unijuga var. kaussanensis H. Léveillé; V. unijuga var. lobata Seok & B. H. Choi; V. unijuga subsp. minor (Nakai) Y. N. Lee; V. unijuga f. minor Nakai; V. unijuga var. ouensanensis H. Léveillé.
Herbs perennial, (15-)40-100(-180) cm tall. Stem sub­shrubby, pilose when young. Leaves paripinnate; stipules hastate or sublanceolate, 8-20 × 3-5 mm, margin unequally toothed; leaflets 1-paired, ovate to lanceolate or rhombic-ellip­tic, (15-)30-90(-115) × (6-)15-40(-50) mm, both surfaces pi­lose, apex sometimes acuminate; tendril rarely present, usually replaced by a mucro. Raceme rarely branched, ± cylindric, 4.5-7 cm, usually obviously longer than leaf, densely 8-20-flow­ered. Calyx campanulate or obliquely so, glabrescent. Corolla deep or light blue to purple to red, rarely white; standard violin-shaped, constricted at middle, 11-15 mm; wings 13-14 mm, longer than keel. Ovary linear, glabrous; ovules 2-8. Legume oblong, flat, 20-35 × 5-7 mm, glabrous, apex beaked. Seeds 3-7, oblate-spheroid. Fl. Feb (in S Yunnan), Jun-Sep, fr. Jul-Oct. 2n = 12, 14, 24.
Forests, forest margins, thickets, scrub, hedges, mountain and hill slopes and summits, damp valleys, pastures, grassy places, river and stream banks, ravines, rocky places on slopes, roadside banks, field margins; below 4000 m. Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Far East, Siberia)].
Vicia unijuga may be the commonest species of Vicia in China, or at least it is the most often collected. The morphological variation is considerable. Several specimens from Hubei are distinctive in having leaflets lanceolate, large (55-115 × 25-45 mm), with a long-acuminate apex (A. Henry 6596, BM!, E!, K!; E. H. Wilson 1230, K!; E. H. Wilson 2036, E!; E. H. Wilson 3486, BM!, E!, K!; and Silvestri 1185, K!). A specimen apparently from the Beijing area ("Fl. Pekinensis," Bret­schneider 209, K!) is similar, as is one from S Korea (Chung In-Cho’s collector 9555, E!). Two specimens from Shandong ([German name] 218, K!; E. Faber 245, K!) have leaflets narrowly elliptic and unusually narrow (30-50 × 6-12 mm). A specimen from S Yunnan (J. F. Rock 2548, K!) has leaves approaching this narrowness.
Vicia unijuga var. trifoliolata Z. D. Xia (Acta Phytotax. Sin. 34: 433. 1996; V. unijuga f. trifoliolata (Z. D. Xia) Y. Endo & H. Ohashi), described from Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Sichuan, was diagnosed in the protologue as "A typo foliolis 3 cirrho 4-5 cm longo, floribus minoribus laxioribusque differt" (differs from the type [by having] leaflets 3 with tendril 4-5 cm long, with flowers smaller and laxer). Further study is needed to ascertain its status.
"Vicia unijuga var. waldeniana" (S. Y. Hu in B. M. Walden & S. Y. Hu, Wild Fl. Yunnan Centr. China, 131. 2000) belongs here but was not validly published because no type was indicated (Vienna Code, Art. 37.1).




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