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紫穗槐Amorpha fruticosa

时间:2018-08-14 08:26来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):紫穗槐 学名( Scientific Name ): Amorpha fruticosa L. 英文名( English Common Name ): false indigo bush 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 紫槐、棉条 异名( Synonym ): Amorpha fruticosa var. emarginata Pursh Am
中文名(Chinese Name):紫穗槐
学名(Scientific Name):Amorpha fruticosa L.
英文名(English Common Name):false indigo bush
别名(Chinese Common Name):紫槐、棉条
异名(Synonym):Amorpha fruticosa var. emarginata Pursh  Amorpha virgata Small  Amorpha occidentalis Abrams  Amorpha fragrans Sweet  Amorpha dewinkeleri Small  Amorpha curtissii Rydb.  Amorpha angustifolia F.E.Boynton  Amorpha bushii Rydb.  Amorpha arizonica Rydb.  Amorpha humilis Tausch  Amorpha pendula Carriere  Amorpha tennesseensis Kunze  Amorpha occidentalis var. emarginata E.J.Palmer  Amorpha occidentalis var. arizonica (Rydb.)E.J.Palmer  Amorpha fruticosa var. vulgaris Pursh  Amorpha fruticosa var. typica (L.)C.K.Schneid.  Amorpha fruticosa var. tennesseensis (Kunze)E.J.Palmer  Amorpha fruticosa var. pendula (Carriere)Dippel  Amorpha fruticosa var. occidentalis (Abrams)Kearney & Peebles  Amorpha fruticosa var. oblongifolia E.J.Palmer  Amorpha fruticosa var. angustifolia Pursh  Amorpha fruticosa var. caroliniana (Croom)S.Watson  Amorpha fruticosa var. coerulea Loudon  Amorpha fruticosa var. croceolanata (Watson)Mouill.  Amorpha fruticosa var. lewisii Loudon  Amorpha fruticosa var. humilis (Tausch)C.K.Schneid.  Amorpha caroliniana Croom  Amorpha fruticosa f. albiflora E. Sheld.  Amorpha fruticosa f. aureo-variegata Schwerin  Amorpha fruticosa f. coerulea E.J. Palmer  Amorpha fruticosa f. crispa C.K. Schneid.  Amorpha fruticosa f. glabrata E.J. Palmer  Amorpha fruticosa f. humilis (Tausch) E.J. Palmer  Amorpha fruticosa f. latior Fassett  Amorpha fruticosa f. pendula (Carrière) C.K. Schneid.
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae紫穗槐属
形态特征(Description):落叶灌木,丛生,高1-4米。小枝灰褐色,被疏毛,后变无毛,嫩枝密被短柔毛。叶互生,奇数羽状复叶,长10-15厘米,有小叶11-25片,基部有线形托叶;叶柄长1-2厘米;小叶卵形或椭圆形,长1-4厘米,宽0.6-2.0厘米,先端圆形,锐尖或微凹,有一短而弯曲的尖刺,基部宽楔形或圆形,上面无毛或被疏毛,下面有白色短柔毛,具黑色腺点。穗状花序常1至数个顶生和枝端腋生,长7-15厘米,密被短柔毛;花有短梗;苞片长3-4毫米;花萼长2-3毫米,被疏毛或几无毛,萼齿三角形,较萼筒短;旗瓣心形,紫色,无翼瓣和龙骨瓣;雄蕊10,下部合生成鞘,上部分裂,包于旗瓣之中,伸出花冠外。荚果下垂,长6-10毫米,宽2-3毫米,微弯曲,顶端具小尖,棕褐色,表面有凸起的疣状腺点。花、果期5-10月。
分布(Distribution):原产美国东北部和东南部,现我国东北、华北、西北及山东、安徽、江苏、河南、湖北、广西、四川等省区均有栽培。
用途(Use):枝叶作绿肥、家畜饲料;茎皮可提取栲胶,枝条编制篓筐;果实含芳香油,种子含油率10%,可作油漆、甘油和润滑油之原料。栽植于河岸、河堤、沙地、山坡及铁路沿线,有护堤防沙、防风固沙的作用。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 120
Amorpha fruticosa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 713. 1753.
紫穗槐 zi sui huai| Fabaceae  | Amorpha
Deciduous shrubs, 1-4 m tall. Stems pubescent, glabres­cent. Leaves 10-15 cm; stipules bristlelike; petiole 1-2 cm; leaflets 11-25, ovate to elliptic, 1-4 × 0.6-2 cm, abaxially white puberulent, adaxially glabrous or sparsely pubescent, black glandular-dotted, base broadly cuneate or rounded, apex acute, obtuse, or retuse, with a shortly curved spinose tip. Racemes 1 to many, terminal or subterminal, 7-15 cm, densely pubescent; bracts 3-4 mm. Calyx 2-3 mm; teeth triangular, shorter than tube. Standard purple, obcordate, ca. 6 mm; wings and keel absent. Style puberulent. Legume dark brown, oblong, curved, 6-10 × 2-3 mm, apex beaked, strongly glandular-dotted, 1-seeded. Seed lustrous, reniform, ca. 5 mm, curved upward. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Jul-Sep.
Sandy banks of ravines, cultivated or escaped. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangxi, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Zhejiang [native to North America; widely introduced in N Asia and Europe].
This is a variable species with many synonyms and described varieties in North America. It is regarded as a noxious weed in some parts of the United States.






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