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蜡梅Chimonanthus praecox

时间:2018-06-25 17:02来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):蜡梅 学名( Scientific Name ): Chimonanthus praecox (Linn.) Link 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 腊梅、腊木 异名( Synonym ): Chimonanthus praecox var. concolor Makino;Chimon









中文名(Chinese Name):蜡梅
学名(Scientific Name):Chimonanthus praecox (Linn.) Link
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):腊梅、腊木
异名(Synonym):Chimonanthus praecox var. concolor Makino;Chimonanthus praecox var. grandiflorus Makino;Chimonanthus parviflorus Raf.;Chimonanthus yunnanensis Sm.;Chimonanthus fragrans Lindl.;Chimonanthus fragrans var. grandiflora Lindl.;Calycanthus praecox L.;Chimonanthus praecox var. intermedius Makino;Meratia praecox (L.) Rehder et E. H. Wilson;Meratia yunnanensis (Sm.) Hu;Meratia fragrans Loisel.;Butneria praecox (L.) Schneid.;Chimonanthus baokanensis var. yupiensis D. M. Chen et Z. I. Dai;Chimonanthus baokanensis D. M. Cen et Z. I. Dai;Chimonanthus caspitosus T. B. Chao, Z. X. I Chen et Z. Q. Li;Calycanthus suaveolens Salisb.;Chimonanthus fragrans var. grandiflorus Lindl.;Chimonanthus grandiflorus (Lindl.) Steud.;Chimonanthus luteus (G.Don) Biel.;Chimonanthus praecox f. intermedius (Makino) Okuyama;Beureria praecox (L.) Kuntze;Chimonanthus praecox f. luteus (G.Don) Okuyama;Chimonanthus praecox f. versicolor B.Zhao;Chimonanthus praecox var. luteus G.Don;grandiflora (Lindl.) Rehder & E.H.Wilson
科属(Family & Genus):蜡梅科(Calycanthaceae)蜡梅属
形态特征(Description):落叶灌木,高达4米;幼枝四方形,老枝近圆柱形,灰褐色,无毛或被疏微毛,有皮孔;鳞芽通常着生于第二年生的枝条叶腋内,芽鳞片近圆形,覆瓦状排列,外面被短柔毛。叶纸质至近革质,卵圆形、椭圆形、宽椭圆形至卵状椭圆形,有时长圆状披针形,长5-25厘米,宽2-8厘米,顶端急尖至渐尖,有时具尾尖,基部急尖至圆形,除叶背脉上被疏微毛外无毛。花着生于第二年生枝条叶腋内,先花后叶,芳香,直径2-4厘米;花被片圆形、长圆形、倒卵形、椭圆形或匙形,长5-20毫米,宽5-15毫米,无毛,内部花被片比外部花被片短,基部有爪;雄蕊长4毫米,花丝比花药长或等长,花药向内弯,无毛,药隔顶端短尖,退化雄蕊长3毫米;心皮基部被疏硬毛,花柱长达子房3倍,基部被毛。果托近木质化,坛状或倒卵状椭圆形,长2-5厘米,直径1-2.5厘米,口部收缩,并具有钻状披针形的被毛附生物。花期11月至翌年3月,果期4-11月。
分布(Distribution):产华东、华中、华南及西南等省区,生于山地林中。日本、朝鲜及欧洲也有。
用途(Use):花芳香美丽,是园林绿化植物。根、叶可药用,理气止痛、散寒解毒,治跌打、腰痛、风湿麻木、风寒感冒,刀伤出血;花解暑生津,治心烦口渴、气郁胸闷;花蕾油治烫伤。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 7 Page 92, 93, 94
Chimonanthus praecox (Linnaeus) Link, Enum. Pl. Hort. Berol. 2: 66. 1822.
蜡梅 la mei| Calycanthaceae  | Chimonanthus
Calycanthus praecox Linnaeus, Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 1: 718. 1762; Butneria praecox (Linnaeus) C. K. Schneider; Chimonanthus baokanensis D. M. Chen & Z. I. Dai; C. baokanensis var. yupiensis D. M. Chen & Z. I. Dai; C. caespitosus T. B. Chao et al.; C. fragrans Lindley, nom. illeg. superfl.; C. fragrans var. grandiflorus Lindley; C. parviflorus Rafinesque; C. praecox var. concolor Makino; C. praecox var. grandiflorus (Lindley) Makino; C. praecox var. intermedius Makino; C. praecox var. reflexus B. Zhao; C. yunnanensis W. W. Smith; Meratia fragrans Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, nom. illeg. superfl.; M. praecox (Linnaeus) Rehder & E. H. Wilson; M. yunnanensis (W. W. Smith) S. Y. Hu.
Shrubs or small trees, 3-13 m tall, deciduous or sometimes with persistent leaves. Branchlets grayish brown, quadrangular when young but becoming subterete, glabrous or slightly puberulent, lenticellate; buds usually axillary on branches of previous year; bud scales subcircular, imbricate, outside pubescent. Petiole 0.3-1.8 cm, pubescent; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, broadly elliptic, ovate-elliptic, oblong-elliptic, or sometimes oblong-lanceolate, 5-29 × 2-12 cm, papery to subleathery, abaxially glabrous except for occasional scattered trichomes on veins, adaxially roughly scabrous, secondary veins 4-6 on each side of midvein, base cuneate to rounded, apex acute, acuminate, or sometimes caudate. Flowers on branches of previous year, solitary or paired, appearing generally before leaves, 1.5-4 cm in diam., sweetly fragrant. Pedicel 2-8 mm. Tepals 15-21, yellow but inner ones usually with purplish red pigment, 0.5-2 × 0.5-1.5 cm; outer tepals orbicular to obovate, puberulent, apex truncate or rounded; median tepals elliptic to oblong-elliptic, glabrous or sometimes margin ciliate, apex rounded to acute; inner tepals orbicular to oblong, glabrous or sometimes margin ciliate, base distinctly clawed, apex rounded. Stamens 5-8, 2.5-4 mm; filaments broad, longer, equal, or rarely shorter than anthers, basally pubescent or glabrous; anthers glabrous; connective puberulous or glabrous, apex acute; staminodes 2-15, subulate to linear-lanceolate, 2-3 mm, pubescent. Carpels 5-15, hirtellous at base; style ca. 3 × as long as ovary, pubescent at base. Pseudocarp urceolate, ovoid-ellipsoid, or obovoid-ellipsoid, 2-6 × 1-2.5 cm, subwoody, apex constricted, apical appendages 9 or 10, tapered lanceolate, with trichomes. Achenes 3-11, brown, ellipsoid to reniform, 15-16.5 × 5-5.6 mm, pubescent at base. Fl. Oct-Mar, fr. Apr-Nov. 2n = 22*.
● Montane forests; 500-1100 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
This species is cultivated throughout most of China as well as in other temperate areas of the world as a decorative plant, particularly for its sweetly fragrant flowers. The leaves, roots, flowers, and seeds are used medicinally.
Because of its extensive and long cultivation in China, some of the reported distribution is uncertain as to it actually being native.
(责任编辑:徐晔春)
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