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大叶苎麻Boehmeria japonica

时间:2013-11-10 10:01来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名 ( Chinese Name ): 大叶苎麻 学名 ( Scientific Name ): Boehmeria japonica (L. f.) Miq. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 野线麻 异名( Synonym ): Boehmeria longispica Steud. Boehmeria platyphyll
中文名Chinese Name):大叶苎麻
学名Scientific Name):Boehmeria japonica (L. f.) Miq.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):野线麻
异名(Synonym):Boehmeria longispica Steud.  Boehmeria platyphylla var. macrophylla Wedd.  Boehmeria taiwaniana Nakai et Satake  Boehmeria japonica var. appendiculata (Blume) Yahara  Boehmeria holosericea Blume  Boehmeria japonica var. longispica (Blume) Yahara  Boehmeria pilushanensis Liu et L. T. Lu  Boehmeria grandifolia Wedd.  Boehmeria spicata var. duploserrata C. H. Wright  Boehmeria hatusimae Satake  Boehmeria taiwaniana var. pilushanensis (Liu & Lu) S.S.Ying  Boehmeria longispica var. appendiculata Blume  Boehmeria macrophylla var. tomentosa (Wedd.) D.G.Long  Boehmeria miqueliana Tanaka  Boehmeria pachystachya Satake  Boehmeria platyphylla var. japonica (L.f.) Wedd.  Duretia longispica (Steud.) Nakai  Ramium japonicum Kuntze 
科属(Family & Genus):荨麻科(Urticaceae)苎麻属
形态特征(Description):亚灌木或多年生草本,高0.6-1.5米,上部通常有较密的开展或贴伏的糙毛。叶对生,同一对叶等大或稍不等大;叶片纸质,近圆形、圆卵形或卵形,长7-17(-26)厘米,宽5.5-13(-20)厘米,顶端骤尖,有时不明显三骤尖,基部宽楔形或截形,边缘在基部之上有牙齿(下部的较小,近正三角形,上部的大,三角形,顶端锐尖,全缘或常有1小齿),上面粗糙,有短糙伏毛,下面沿脉网有短柔毛,侧脉1-2对;叶柄长达6 (-8)厘米。穗状花序单生叶腋,雌雄异株,不分枝,有时具少数分枝,雄的长约,3厘米,雌的长7-20(-30)厘米;雄团伞花序直径约1.5毫米,约有3花,雌团伞花序直径2-4毫米,有极多数雌花;苞片卵状三角形或狭披针形,长0.8-1.5毫米。雄花:花被片4,椭圆形,长约1毫米,基部合生,外面被短糙伏毛;雄蕊4,花药长约0.5毫米;退化雌蕊椭圆形,长约0.5毫米。雌花:花被倒卵状纺锤形,长1-1.2毫米,顶端有2小齿,上部密被糙毛,果期呈菱状倒卵形,长约2毫米;柱头长1.2-1.5毫米。瘦果倒卵球形,长约1毫米,光滑。花期6-9月。
分布(Distribution):产广东、广西、贵州、湖南、江西、福建、台湾、浙江、江苏、安徽、湖北、四川、陕西、河南、山东,生于海拔300- 600米丘陵或低山山地灌丛中、疏林中、田边或溪边。日本也有分布。
用途(Use):茎皮纤维可代麻,供纺织麻布用。叶供药用,可清热解毒、消肿,治疮疥,又可饲猪。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 172   
Boehmeria japonica (Linnaeus f.) Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi. 3: 131. 1867.
野线麻 ye xian ma| Urticaceae  | Boehmeria
Urtica japonica Linnaeus f., Suppl. Pl. 481. 1782; Boehmeria grandifolia Weddell; B. holosericea Blume; B. japonica var. appendiculata (Blume) Yahara; B. japonica var. longispica (Steudel) Yahara; B. longispica Steudel; B. pilushanensis Liu & Lu; B. platyphylla D. Don var. macrophylla Weddell; B. spicata var. duploserrata C. H. Wright; B. taiwaniana Nakai & Satake.
Subshrubs or herbs perennial, simple or few branched, 0.7-1.5 m tall; upper stems and branchlets densely appressed or patent strigose. Dioecious. Leaves opposite, subequal in size; stipules lanceolate, 0.8-1.2 mm; petiole 6-8 cm, appressed or patent strigose; leaf blade dark green or black when dry, suborbicular, orbicular-ovate, or ovate, 7-17(-26) × 5.5-13(-20) cm, papery, secondary veins 1-3 pairs along midvein, abaxial surface pubescent or sericeous along veins and veinlets, adaxial surface roughish, strigillose, base broadly cuneate, subrounded, or truncate, margin coarsely 7-14-dentate, teeth 6-20 mm, gradually larger distally, distal ones often biserrate, apex sometimes inconspicuously tricuspidate, lateral cusps shorter than terminal one. Glomerules on axillary unbranched, or sometimes few-branched, spikelike branches; male spikes 3-15 cm; female spikes 7-20(-30) cm. Male flowers 4-merous, sessile; perianth lobes elliptic, ca. 1 mm, strigose, connate at base. Fruiting perianth rhomboid-obovoid, compressed, ca. 1.8 mm, smooth, strigose on shoulder, base stipitate or cuneate, apex with short neck, 2-toothed. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Sep-Nov.
Forest margins, thickets, along streams in hills and mountains; 300-600 m in N and SE China, 1000-1300 m in SW China. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, S Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan].
The fibers are used to make ropes and cloth. The leaves are used agriculturally as fodder and medicinally to relieve internal fever.
The earliest reference to this species is an excellent plate published by Houttuyn (Nat. Hist. 11: 291, pl. 72, f. 2. 1779), but that author did not ascribe any binomial to the plant in question. Boehmeria japonica and the following four species in this account, B. tricuspis, B. silvestrii, B. spicata and B. allophylla, make up a complex containing intermediate forms, because of which the status of the species remains uncertain.
 


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