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益智Alpinia oxyphylla

时间:2013-11-10 18:58来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名 ( Chinese Name ): 益智 学名 ( Scientific Name ): Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. 英文名 ( English Common Name ): 别名 ( Chinese Common Name ): 异名 ( Synonym ): Languas oxyphylla (Miq.) Merr. Amomum amarum F.P.Sm. 科属 ( Fami
中文名Chinese Name):益智
学名Scientific Name):Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.
英文名English Common Name):
别名Chinese Common Name):
异名Synonym):Languas oxyphylla (Miq.) Merr.  Amomum amarum F.P.Sm.
科属Family & Genus):姜科(Zingiberaceae)山姜属
形态特征Description):株高1-3米;茎丛生;根茎短,长3-5厘米。叶片披针形,长25-35厘米,宽3-6厘米,顶端渐狭,具尾尖,基部近圆形,边缘具脱落性小刚毛;叶柄短;叶舌膜质,2裂;长1-2厘米,稀更长,被淡棕色疏柔毛。总状花序在花蕾时全部包藏于一帽状总苞片中,花时整个脱落,花序轴被极短的柔毛;小花梗长1-2毫米;大苞片极短,膜质,棕色;花萼筒状,长1.2厘米,一侧开裂至中部,先端具3齿裂,外被短柔毛;花冠管长8-10毫米,花冠裂片长圆形,长约1.8厘米,后方的1枚稍大,白色,外被疏柔毛;侧生退化雄蕊钻状,长约2毫米;唇瓣倒卵形,长约2厘米,粉白色而具红色脉纹,先端边缘皱波状;花丝长1.2厘米,花药长约7毫米;子房密被绒毛。蒴果鲜时球形,干时纺锤形,长1.5-2厘米,宽约1厘米,被短柔毛,果皮上有隆起的维管束线条,顶端有花萼管的残迹;种子不规则扁圆形,被淡黄色假种皮。花期:3-5月;果期:4-9月。
分布(Distribution):产广东、海南、广西;野生于荒坡灌丛或疏林中,或栽培。
用途(Use):果实供药用,有益脾胃,理元气,补肾虚滑沥的功用。治脾胃(或肾)虚寒所致的泄泻,腹痛,呕吐,食欲不振,唾液分泌增多,遗尿,小便频数等症。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 24 Page 341 
Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel, J. Bot. Néerl. 1: 93. 1861.
益智 yi zhi| Zingiberaceae  | Alpinia
Languas oxyphylla (Miquel) Merrill.
Pseudostems 1--3 m. Ligule brownish, 2-cleft, 1--2 cm, rarely longer, membranous, sparsely puberulent; petiole short; leaf blade lanceolate, 25--35 × 3--6 cm, base subrounded, margin hispid, glabrescent, apex attenuate, caudate. Racemes enclosed in bud by a hat-shaped involucral bract deciduous at anthesis; rachis very shortly puberulent. Pedicel 1--2 mm. Calyx tubular, ca. 1.2 cm, split to middle on 1 side, abaxially pubescent, apex 3-toothed. Corolla tube 8--10 mm; lobes oblong, ca. 1.8 cm, central one white, wider than lateral ones, abaxially sparsely puberulent. Lateral staminodes subulate, ca. 2 mm. Labellum white with red stripes, obovate, ca. 2 cm, apical margin crisped. Filament ca. 1.2 cm; anther ca. 7 mm. Ovary densely tomentose. Capsule globose when fresh, fusiform when dry, 1.5--2 × ca. 1 cm, with elevated, vascular stripes, pubescent, apex with persistent calyx. Seeds irregularly oblate; aril brownish. Fl. Mar--May, fr. Apr--Sep. 2 n = 48*.
* Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan.
Both wild and cultivated plants are used for medicine.
 




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