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花菱草Eschscholzia californica

时间:2013-10-29 13:59来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):花菱草 学名( Scientific Name ): Eschscholzia californica Cham. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 金英花 异名( Synonym ): Eschscholtzia californica Cham. Chelidonium multifidum
中文名(Chinese Name):花菱草
学名(Scientific Name):Eschscholzia californica Cham.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):金英花
异名(Synonym):Eschscholtzia californica Cham.  Chelidonium multifidum Mo?. & Sessé ex DC.  Chryseis caespitosa Torr. & A.Gray  Chryseis californica (Cham.) Lindl.  Chryseis compacta Lindl.  Chryseis crocea Lindl.  Chryseis douglasii Hook. & Arn. ex Torr. & A.Gray  Chryseis hypecoides Torr. & A.Gray  Chryseis tenuifolia Torr. & A.Gray  Eschscholzia brandegeei Greene  Eschscholzia californica var. ambigua (Greene) Jeps.  Eschscholzia californica var. compacta (Lindl.) Jeps.  Eschscholzia californica var. crocea (Benth.) Jeps.  Eschscholzia californica var. douglasii (Hook. & Arn. ex Torr. & A.Gray) Jeps.  Eschscholzia californica var. luxurians Fedde  Eschscholzia californica var. maritima (Greene) Jeps.  Eschscholzia californica var. peninsularis (Greene) Munz  Eschscholzia californica var. stricta (Greene) Jeps.  Eschscholzia calosperma Greene  Eschscholzia chartacea Fedde  Eschscholzia clevelandi Greene  Eschscholzia cognata Greene  Eschscholzia columbiana Greene  Eschscholzia compacta (Lindl.) Walp.  Eschscholzia confinis Greene  Eschscholzia crocea var. apiifolia Greene  Eschscholzia crocea var. longissima Greene  Eschscholzia crocea var. sanctarum (Greene) Fedde  Eschscholzia crocea Benth.  Eschscholzia cucullata Greene  Eschscholzia cyathifera Greene  Eschscholzia debilis Greene  Eschscholzia diversiloba Greene  Eschscholzia absinthiifolia Greene  Eschscholzia ambigua Greene  Eschscholzia angularis Greene  Eschscholzia apiculata Greene  Eschscholzia benedicta Greene  Eschscholzia bernardina var. coarctata Fedde  Eschscholzia bernardina Greene  Eschscholzia biolettii Greene  Eschscholzia eastwoodiae Greene  Eschscholzia floribunda var. gorgonica Greene  Eschscholzia floribunda var. gracillima Fedde  Eschscholzia floribunda Greene  Eschscholzia foeniculacea Greene  Eschscholzia glauca Greene  Eschscholzia granulata var. minuscula Fedde  Eschscholzia granulata Greene  Eschscholzia helleriana var. tilingii Fedde  Eschscholzia helleriana Greene  Eschscholzia inflata Greene  Eschscholzia isostigma Greene  Eschscholzia juncea Greene  Eschscholzia lacera Greene  Eschscholzia leptandra Greene  Eschscholzia leptomitra Greene  Eschscholzia leucosticta Greene  Eschscholzia marcida var. monticola Greene  Eschscholzia marcida Greene  Eschscholzia maritima Greene  Eschscholzia menziesiana var. anemophila Greene  Eschscholzia menziesiana var. coarctata Fedde  Eschscholzia menziesiana var. nesiaca Fedde  Eschscholzia menziesiana var. recedens Greene  Eschscholzia menziesiana Greene  Eschscholzia microloba Greene  Eschscholzia nitrophila Greene  Eschscholzia oregana Greene  Eschscholzia peninsularis Greene  Eschscholzia physodes Greene  Eschscholzia picta Greene  Eschscholzia pseudoinflata Fedde  Eschscholzia recta Greene  Eschscholzia revoluta var. caudatocalyx Fedde  Eschscholzia revoluta Greene  Eschscholzia rigida Greene  Eschscholzia robusta Greene  Eschscholzia rosea auct.  Eschscholzia sanctarum Greene  Eschscholzia scariosa var. dichasiophora Fedde  Eschscholzia scariosa Greene  Eschscholzia setchellii Fedde  Eschscholzia shastensis Greene  Eschscholzia straminea Greene  Eschscholzia stricta Greene  Eschscholzia tenuisecta Greene  Eschscholzia thermophila Greene  Eschscholzia tristis Fedde  Eschscholzia vernalis Greene  Eschscholzia xylorrhiza Greene  Eschscholzia yainacensis var. modocensis Fedde  Eschscholzia yainacensis Greene  Omonoia californica Raf. 
科属Family & Genus):罂粟科(Papaveraceae)花菱草属
形态特征Description):多年生(栽培者常为一年生)草本,无毛,植株带蓝灰色。茎直立,高30-60厘米,明显具纵肋,分枝多,开展,呈二歧状。基生叶数枚,长10-30厘米,叶柄长,叶片灰绿色,多回三出羽状细裂,裂片形状多变,线形锐尖、长圆形锐尖或钝、匙状长圆形,顶生3裂片中,中裂片大多较宽和短;茎生叶与基生叶同,但较小和具短柄。花单生于茎和分枝顶端;花梗长5-15厘米,花托凹陷,漏斗状或近管状,长3-4毫米,花开后成杯状,边缘波状反折;花萼卵珠形,长约1厘米,顶端呈短圆锥状,萼片2,花期脱落;花瓣4,三角状扇形,长2.5-3厘米,黄色,基部具橙黄色斑点;雄蕊多数,约40枚以上,花丝丝状,基部加宽,长约3毫米,花药条形,长5-6毫米,橙黄色;子房狭长,花柱短,柱头4,钻状线形,不等长。蒴果狭长圆柱形,长达5-8厘米,自花托上脱落后,2瓣自基部向上开裂,具多数种子。种子球形,直径1-1.5毫米,具明显的网纹。花期4-8月,果期6-9月。
分布(Distribution):原产美国加利福尼亚州,我国广泛引种作庭园观赏植物。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 7 Page 281     
Eschscholzia californica Chamisso in Nees, Horae Phys. Berol. 73. 1820.
花菱草 hua ling cao| Papaveraceae  | Eschscholzia
Herbs, annual or short-lived perennial, glaucous, glabrous. Stems erect to spreading, 30-60 cm, obviously longitudinally costate, with many branches spreading, dichotomous. Basal leaves several, 10-30 cm, petiolate; blade tripinnatipartite; lobes various, acutely linear, acutely oblong, or obtusely spatulate-oblong, with 3 terminal lobes, middle mostly broad and short. Cauline leaves similar to basal leaves, but progressively smaller and shortly petiolate. Flowers solitary, terminal. Pedicel 5-15 cm. Receptacles concave, funnelform or nearly tubular, 3-4 mm in diam., cupular after flowering, margin undulately re- flexed. Calyx ovoid, ca. 1 cm, apically shortly conical, caplike. Petals 4, yellow, sometimes with orange flecks at base, deltoid-flabellate, 2.5-3 cm. Stamens many, more than 40; filaments filiform, basally inflated, ca. 3 mm; anthers orange, linear, 5-6 mm. Ovary long, narrow; styles short; stigmas 4, subulate-linear, unequally long. Capsule narrowly terete, 5-8 cm. Seeds spherical, 1-1.5 mm in diam., obviously tessellate. Fl. Apr-Aug, fr. Jun-Sep. 2n = 12.
Widely introduced as courtyard ornamentals in China [native to United States (California)].
This species is widely cultivated in temperate and Mediterranean-type gardens. Cultivated forms include those with single and semi-double flowers in a wide range of colors from white and cream to yellow, orange, red, pink, and purple.






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