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白三叶草Trifolium repens

时间:2018-08-14 08:46来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):白三叶草 学名( Scientific Name ): Trifolium repens L. 英文名( English Common Name ): white clover 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 白车轴草 异名( Synonym ): Lotodes repens (L.) Kuntze 科属( Family Genus
中文名(Chinese Name):白三叶草
学名(Scientific Name):Trifolium repens L.
英文名(English Common Name):white clover
别名(Chinese Common Name):白车轴草
异名(Synonym):Lotodes repens (L.) Kuntze
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae车轴草属
形态特征(Description):短期多年生草本,生长期达5年,高10-30厘米。主根短,侧根和须根发达。茎匍匐蔓生,上部稍上升,节上生根,全株无毛。掌状三出复叶;托叶卵状披针形,膜质,基部抱茎成鞘状,离生部分锐尖;叶柄较长,长10-30厘米;小叶倒卵形至近圆形,长8-20 (-30) 毫米,宽8-16 (-25) 毫米,先端凹头至钝圆,基部楔形渐窄至小叶柄,中脉在下面隆起,侧脉约13对,与中脉作50°角展开,两面均隆起,近叶边分叉并伸达锯齿齿尖;小叶柄长1.5毫米,微被柔毛。花序球形,顶生,直径15-40毫米;总花梗甚长,比叶柄长近1倍,具花20-50 (-80) 朵,密集;无总苞;苞片披针形,膜质,锥尖;花长7-12毫米;花梗比花萼稍长或等长,开花立即下垂;萼钟形,具脉纹10条,萼齿5,披针形,稍不等长,短于萼筒,萼喉开张,无毛;花冠白色、乳黄色或淡红色,具香气。旗瓣椭圆形,比翼瓣和龙骨瓣长近1倍,龙骨瓣比翼瓣稍短;子房线状长圆形,花柱比子房略长,胚珠3-4粒。荚果长圆形;种子通常3粒。种子阔卵形。花果期5-10月。
分布(Distribution):原产欧洲和北非,世界各地均有栽培。我国常见于种植,并在湿润草地、河岸、路边呈半自生状态。
用途(Use):本种为优良牧草,含丰富的蛋白质和矿物质,抗寒耐热,在酸性和碱性土壤上均能适应,是本属植物中在我国很有推广前途的种。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 549, 550
Trifolium repens Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 767. 1753.
白车轴草 bai che zhou cao | Fabaceae  | Trifolium
Perennial herbs, stoloniferous, glabrous to glabrescent. Stems 10-30 cm, prostrate, rooting at nodes. Leaves long petio­late, palmately 3-foliolate; stipules ovate-lanceolate, membra­nous, with veins green or red, sheathing at base, apex subulate; petiolule 1-1.5 mm; leaflets obovate to ovate, 6-20(-40) × 8-16(-25) mm, lateral veins 13 pairs, prominent on both surfaces, base cuneate, apex emarginate to broadly rounded. Flowers 20-50(-80), in terminal, globose umbels, 1.5-4 cm; peduncle equal to or longer than petiole; involucre absent; bracts lanceolate-ov­ate, membranous; pedicels 2-5 mm, reflexed after anthesis. Ca­lyx 3-5 mm, veins 6-10; teeth shorter than tube. Corolla white, rarely pink-tinged, 5-12 mm, fragrant; standard elliptic, ca. 2 × wings and keel. Ovary sessile; ovules 3 or 4. Legume linear-oblong. Seeds 2-4, ovoid to reniform. Fl. and fr. May-Oct.
Cultivated, escaped, and naturalized; grasslands, ravines, road­sides. Throughout China [native to N Africa, C and SW Asia, and Eu­rope].




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