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紫苜蓿Medicago sativa

时间:2018-08-14 08:48来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):紫苜蓿 学名( Scientific Name ): Medicago sativa L. 英文名( English Common Name ): alfalfa 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 苜蓿 异名( Synonym ): Medicago asiatica subsp. sinensis Sinskaya Medicago beipinen
中文名(Chinese Name):紫苜蓿
学名(Scientific Name):Medicago sativa L.
英文名(English Common Name):alfalfa
别名(Chinese Common Name):苜蓿
异名(Synonym): Medicago asiatica subsp. sinensis Sinskaya  Medicago beipinensis Vassilcz.  Medicago afghanica Vassilcz.  Medicago tibetana (Alef.) Vassilcz.  Trigonella upendrae H.J.Chowdhery & R.R.Rao  Medicago praesativa Sinskaya  Medicago sogdiana (Brand)Vassilcz.  Medicago polia (Brand)Vassilcz.  Medicago orientalis Vassilcz.  Medicago mesopotamica Vassilcz.  Medicago ladak Vassilcz.  Medicago afganica (Bordere)Vassilcz.  Medicago grandiflora (Grossh.)Vassilcz.
科属Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae苜蓿属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高30-100厘米。根粗壮,深入土层,根颈发达。茎直立、丛生以至平卧,四棱形,无毛或微被柔毛,枝叶茂盛。羽状三出复叶;托叶大,卵状披针形,先端锐尖,基部全缘或具1-2齿裂,脉纹清晰;叶柄比小叶短;小叶长卵形、倒长卵形至线状卵形,等大,或顶生小叶稍大,长 (5) 10-25 (-40) 毫米,宽3-10毫米,纸质,先端钝圆,具由中脉伸出的长齿尖,基部狭窄,楔形,边缘三分之一以上具锯齿,上面无毛,深绿色,下面被贴伏柔毛,侧脉8-10对,与中脉成锐角,在近叶边处略有分叉;顶生小叶柄比侧生小叶柄略长。花序总状或头状,长1-2.5厘米,具花5-30朵;总花梗挺直,比叶长;苞片线状锥形,比花梗长或等长;花长6-12毫米;花梗短,长约2毫米;萼钟形,长3-5毫米,萼齿线状锥形,比萼筒长,被贴伏柔毛;花冠各色:淡黄、深蓝至暗紫色,花瓣均具长瓣柄,旗瓣长圆形,先端微凹,明显较翼瓣和龙骨瓣长,翼瓣较龙骨瓣稍长;子房线形,具柔毛,花柱短阔,上端细尖,柱头点状,胚珠多数。荚果螺旋状紧卷2-4 (-6) 圈,中央无孔或近无孔,径5-9毫米,被柔毛或渐脱落,脉纹细,不清晰,熟时棕色;有种子10-20粒。种子卵形,长1-2.5毫米,平滑,黄色或棕色。花期5-7月,果期6-8月。
分布(Distribution):全国各地都有栽培或呈半野生状态,生于田边、路旁、旷野、草原、河岸及沟谷等地。欧亚大陆和世界各国广泛种植。
用途(Use):
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 553, 556
Medicago sativa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 778. 1753.
紫苜蓿 zi mu xu| Fabaceae  | Medicago
Medicago afghanica Vassilczenko; M. alaschanica Vas­silczenko; M. asiatica Sinskaya subsp. sinensis Sinskaya; M. beipinensis Vassilczenko; M. pekinensis Vassilczenko; M. rivu­laris Vassilczenko; M. roborovskii Vassilczenko; M. sativa var. tibetana Alefeld; M. tibetana (Alefeld) Vassilczenko.
Perennial herbs, 30-100 cm. Stems erect, ascending, rarely prostrate, quadrangular, glabrous or puberulent, much branched. Stipules ovate-lanceolate, base entire or with 1 or 2 denticles, apex acute; leaflets long ovate, obovate, to linear-ovate, (5-)10-25(-40) × 3-10 mm, papery, appressed pubescent abaxially, glabrous adaxially, lateral veins 8-10 pairs, base tapering, mar­gin serrulate in upper 1/3, apex rounded, mucronate with a den­ticle from midrib. Heads or racemes with 5-30 flowers, 1-2.5 cm; peduncles straight, longer than leaves; bracts equal to pedi­cels, ca. 2 mm. Corolla variable in color, white, deep blue, to dark purple; standard oblong, retuse. Ovary linear; ovules nu­merous. Legume tightly coiled in 2-4(-6) spirals, 5-9 mm in diam., center solid or nearly so, brown when ripe, veins thin and inconspicuous. Seeds 10-20, yellow or brown, ovoid, 1-2.5 mm, smooth. Fl. May-Jul, fr. Jun-Oct.
Cultivated throughout China, often escaped to roadsides, fields, grasslands, and stream banks [native to N and SW Asia, probably also S Europe; now cosmopolitan].






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