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光萼猪屎豆Crotalaria trichotoma

时间:2018-08-14 08:44来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):光萼猪屎豆 学名( Scientific Name ): Crotalaria trichotoma Bojer 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 光萼野百合 异名( Synonym ): Crotalaria zanzibarica Benth. Crotalaria usaramoe
中文名(Chinese Name):光萼猪屎豆
学名(Scientific Name):Crotalaria trichotoma Bojer
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):光萼野百合
异名(Synonym):Crotalaria zanzibarica Benth.  Crotalaria usaramoensis Baker f.  Crotalaria thomensis Baker f.  Crotalaria cleomoides Klotzsch
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae猪屎豆属
形态特征(Description):草本或亚灌木,体高达2米;茎枝圆柱形,具小沟纹,被短柔毛。托叶极细小,钻状,长约1毫米;叶三出,叶柄长3-5厘米,小叶长椭圆形,两端渐尖,长6-10厘米,宽1-2 (-3) 厘米,先端具短尖,上面绿色,光滑无毛,下面青灰色,被短柔毛;小叶柄长约2毫米。总状花序顶生,有花10-20朵,花序长达20厘米;苞片线形,长2-3毫米,小苞片与苞片同形,稍短小,生花梗中部以上;花梗长3-6毫米,在花蕾时挺直向上,开花时屈曲向下,结果时下垂;花萼近钟形,长4-5毫米,五裂,萼齿三角形,约与萼筒等长,无毛;花冠黄色,伸出萼外,旗瓣圆形,直径约12毫米,基部具胼胝体二枚,先端具芒尖,翼瓣长圆形,约与旗瓣等长,龙骨瓣最长,约15毫米,稍弯曲,中部以上变狭,形成长喙,基部边缘具微柔毛;子房无柄。荚果长圆柱形,长3-4厘米,幼时被毛,成熟后脱落,果皮常呈黑色,基部残存宿存花丝及花萼;种子20-30颗,肾形,成熟时朱红色。花果期4-12月间。
分布(Distribution):原产南美洲,生海拔100-1000米田园路边及荒山草地。非洲、亚洲、大洋洲、美洲热带、亚热带地区均有。
用途(Use):可供药用,有清热解毒、散结祛瘀等效用,外用治疮痛、跌打损伤等症。本种亦含有丰富的氮、磷、钾是很好的绿肥植物,我国南方常作为橡胶园的覆盖植物。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 106, 109
Crotalaria trichotoma Bojer, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2. 4: 265. 1835.
光萼猪屎豆 guang e zhu shi dou | Fabaceae  | Crotalaria
Crotalaria usaramoensis E. G. Baker; C. zanzibarica Ben­tham.
Herbs or shrublets, to 2 m tall. Branches terete, ribbed, pu­bescent. Stipules subulate, ca. 1 mm. Leaves 3-foliolate; petiole 3-5 cm; petiolules ca. 2 mm; leaflet blades narrowly elliptic, 6-10 × 1-2(-3) cm, abaxially pubescent, adaxially glabrous, base cuneate, apex acuminate and mucronate. Racemes terminal, ca. 20 cm, 10-20-flowered; bracts linear, 2-3 mm. Pedicel 3-6 mm; bracteoles inserted on apical half of pedicel, similar to bracts in shape but shorter. Calyx subcampanulate, 4-5 mm, 5-lobed; lobes triangular, ± as long as tube, glabrous to sparsely pubescent. Corolla yellow, exserted beyond calyx; standard orbicular, ca. 1.2 cm in diam., base with 2 appendages, apex awned; wings oblong, ± as long as standard; keel ca. 1.5 cm, slightly rounded, narrowed apically from middle, marginally pubescent at base, beak rather long. Ovary subsessile. Legume cylindric, 3-4 × 0.7-1.2 cm, 50-70-seeded, glabrescent; style and calyx persistent. Seeds orangish buff to terra-cotta-colored, reniform, smooth. Fl. Apr-Aug, fr. Sep-Dec.
Grasslands, along trails; 100-2000 m. Cultivated or naturalized in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Sichuan, Taiwan, and Yunnan [native to E Africa; introduced in Australia, Indonesia, Malay­sia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam].




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