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猪屎豆Crotalaria pallida

时间:2018-08-14 08:44来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):猪屎豆 学名( Scientific Name ): Crotalaria pallida Blanco 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 黄野百合,三圆叶猪屎豆 异名( Synonym ): Crotalaria mucronata Desv. Crotalaria zucca
中文名(Chinese Name):猪屎豆
学名(Scientific Name):Crotalaria pallida Blanco
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):黄野百合,三圆叶猪屎豆
异名(Synonym):Crotalaria mucronata Desv.  Crotalaria zuccarininana D.Dietr.  Crotalaria tinctoria Baill.  Crotalaria siamica F.N.Williams  Crotalaria pisiformis Guill. & Perr.  Crotalaria hookeri Arn.  Crotalaria fertilis Delile  Crotalaria brownei DC.
科属Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae猪屎豆属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,或呈灌木状;茎枝圆柱形,具小沟纹,密被紧贴的短柔毛。托叶极细小,刚毛状,通常早落;叶三出,柄长2-4厘米;小叶长圆形或椭圆形,长3-6厘米,宽1.5-3厘米,先端钝圆或微凹,基部阔楔形,上面无毛,下面略被丝光质短柔毛,两面叶脉清晰;小叶柄长1-2毫米。总状花序顶生,长达25厘米,有花10-40朵;苞片线形,长约4毫米;早落,小苞片的形状与苞片相似,长约2毫米,花时极细小,长不及1毫米,生萼筒中部或基部;花梗长3-5毫米;花萼近钟形,长4-6毫米,五裂,萼齿三角形,约与萼筒等长,密被短柔毛;花冠黄色,伸出萼外,旗瓣圆形或椭圆形,直径约10毫米,基部具胼胝体二枚,冀瓣长圆形,长约8毫米,下部边缘具柔毛,龙骨瓣最长,约12毫米,弯曲,几达90度,具长喙,基部边缘具柔毛;子房无柄。荚果长圆形,长3-4厘米,径5-8毫米,幼时被毛,成熟后脱落,果瓣开裂后扭转;种子20-30颗。花果期9-12月间。
分布(Distribution):产福建、台湾、广东、广西、四川、云南、山东、浙江、湖南亦有栽培。生荒山草地及沙质土壤之中。海拔100-1000米。分布到美洲、非洲、亚洲热带、亚热带地区。本种模式标本采自埃塞俄比亚。
用途(Use):本种可供药用,全草有散结、清湿热等作用。近年来试用于抗肿瘤效果较好,主要对鳞状上皮癌,基底细胞癌有疗效。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 106, 108, 109
Crotalaria pallida Aiton, Hort. Kew. 3: 20. 1789.
猪屎豆 zhu shi dou | Fabaceae  | Crotalaria
Crotalaria mucronata Desvaux; C. obovata G. Don; C. pallida var. obovata (G. Don) Polhill; C. striata Candolle.
Herbs, perennial. Branches terete, ribbed, densely appressed pubescent. Stipules acicular, very minute, caducous. Leaves 3-foliolate; petiole 2-4 cm; petiolules 1-2 mm; leaflet blades oblong to elliptic, 3-6 × 1.5-3 cm, abaxially sparsely silky pubescent, adaxially glabrous, veins distinct on both sur­faces, base broadly cuneate, apex obtuse to retuse. Racemes ter­minal, ca. 25 cm, 10-40-flowered; bracts linear, ca. 4 mm, caducous. Pedicel 3-5 mm; bracteoles inserted at base of calyx tube, similar to bracts, ca. 2 mm. Calyx subcampanulate, 4-6 mm, 5-lobed, densely pubescent; lobes triangular, ± as long as tube. Corolla yellow, exserted beyond calyx; standard orbicular to elliptic, ca. 1 cm in diam., base with 2 appendages; wings oblong, ca. 8 mm, marginally pilose on basal part; keel ca. 1.2 cm, rather shallowly rounded, marginally pilose at base, beak narrow and ± projecting. Ovary subsessile. Legume oblong, 3-4 × 0.5-0.8 cm, 20-30-seeded, pilose when young but gla­brescent. Fl. Sep-Oct, fr. Nov-Dec.
Grasslands, disturbed sandy areas; 100-1100 m. Fujian, Guang­dong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, tropical America].
Crotalaria pallida is a very weedy species that is adventive throughout the tropics. It is suspected of being poisonous to livestock.




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