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夏枯草Prunella vulgaris

时间:2013-09-25 11:08来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):夏枯草 学名( Scientific Name ): Prunella vulgaris L. 英文名( English Common Name ): common selfheal 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 麦穗夏枯草、灯笼草 异名( Synonym ): Prunella vulgaris var. leucantha Sch
中文名(Chinese Name):夏枯草
学名(Scientific Name):Prunella vulgaris L.
英文名(English Common Name):common selfheal
别名(Chinese Common Name):麦穗夏枯草、灯笼草
异名(Synonym):Prunella vulgaris var. leucantha Schur  Prunella vulgaris var. japonica Kudo  Brunella vulgaris L.
科属(Family & Genus):唇形科(Labiatae)夏枯草属
形态特征(Description):多年生草木;根茎匍匐,在节上生须根。茎高20-30厘米,上升,下部伏地,自基部多分枝,钝四棱形,其浅槽,紫红色,被稀疏的糙毛或近于无毛。茎叶卵状长圆形或卵圆形,大小不等,长1.5-6厘米,宽0.7-2.5厘米,先端钝,基部圆形、截形至宽楔形,下延至叶柄成狭翅,边缘具不明显的波状齿或几近全缘,草质,上面橄榄绿色,具短硬毛或几无毛,下面淡绿色,几无毛,侧脉3-4对,在下面略突出,叶柄长0.7-2.5厘米,自下部向上渐变短;花序下方的一对苞叶似茎叶,近卵圆形,无柄或具不明显的短柄。轮伞花序密集组成顶生长2-4厘米的穗状花序,每一轮伞花序下承以苞片;苞片宽心形,通常长约7毫米,宽约11毫米,先端具长1-2毫米的骤尖头,脉纹放射状,外面在中部以下沿脉上疏生刚毛,内面无毛,边缘具睫毛,膜质,浅紫色。花萼钟形,连齿长约10毫米,筒长4毫米,倒圆锥形,外面疏生刚毛,二唇形,上唇扁平,宽大,近扁圆形,先端几截平,具3个不很明显的短齿,中齿宽大,齿尖均呈刺状微尖,下唇较狭,2深裂,裂片达唇片之半或以下,边缘具缘毛,先端渐尖,尖头微刺状。花冠紫、蓝紫或红紫色,长约13毫米,略超出于萼,冠筒长7毫米,基部宽约1.5毫米,其上向前方膨大,至喉部宽约4毫米,外面无毛,内面约近基部1/3处具鳞毛毛环,冠檐二唇形,上唇近圆形,径约5.5毫米,内凹,多少呈盔状,先端微缺,下唇约为上唇1/2, 3裂,中裂片较大,近倒心脏形,先端边缘具流苏状小裂片,侧裂片长圆形,垂向下方,细小。雄蕊4,前对长很多,均上升至上唇片之下,彼此分离,花丝略扁平,无毛,前对花丝先端2裂,1裂片能育具花药,另1裂片钻形,长过花药,稍弯曲或近于直立,后对花丝的不育裂片微呈瘤状突出,花药2室,室极叉开。花柱纤细,先端相等2裂,裂片钻形,外弯。花盘近平顶。子房无毛。小坚果黄褐色,长圆状卵珠形,长1.8毫米,宽约0.9毫米,微具沟纹。花期4-6月,果期7-10月。
分布(Distribution):产我国中南部,生于海拔3000米以下荒坡、草地、溪边及路旁等湿润地上。欧洲各地、北非、俄罗斯、西亚、印度、巴基斯坦、尼泊尔、不丹、日本、朝鲜也有。
用途(Use):全株入药,据《滇南本草》记载:“味苦,微辛,性微温,入肝经,祛肝风,行经络。治口眼歪斜,止筋骨疼,舒肝气,开肝郁。治目珠夜(胀)痛,消散瘰疬(周身结核),手足周身节骨酸疼。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 134
Prunella vulgaris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 600. 1753.
夏枯草 xia ku cao| Lamiaceae  | Prunella
 Prunella vulgaris
Credit: Harvard University Herbaria
Stems 20-30 cm, ascending, base much branched, purple-red, sparsely strigose or subglabrous. Petiole 0.7-2.5 cm, upper ones shorter; leaf blade lanceolate to ovate, 1.5-6 × 0.6-2.5 cm, glabrous to sparsely villous, base truncate to broadly cuneate-decurrent, margin undulate to entire, apex obtuse to rounded. Spikes 2-4 cm, sessile; floral leaves similar to cauline leaves, sessile or short petiolate, subovate; bracts purplish, broadly cordate, ca. 7 × 11 mm, cuspidate, veins sparsely hispid. Calyx campanulate, ca. 1 cm, sparsely hispid, tube ca. 4 mm; upper lip suboblate, subtruncate; lower lip narrower, teeth acuminate. Corolla purplish or white, ca. 1.3 cm, slightly exserted, glabrous; tube ca. 7 mm, base ca. 1.5 mm wide, gradually dilated to ca. 4 mm wide at throat; upper lip subcircular, ca. 5.5 mm in diam., ± galeate, emarginate; lower lip ca. 1/2 as long as upper lip, middle lobe subobcordate, fringed; lateral lobes oblong, spreading, minute. Anterior stamens very long. Nutlets oblong-ovoid, ca. 1.8 × 0.9 mm, slightly 1-furrowed. Fl. Apr-Jun, fr. Jul-Oct.
Open slopes, grasslands, wet streamsides, forest margins, thickets; 0-3200 m. Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; Africa, SW Asia, Europe, North America]




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