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美国薄荷Monarda didyma

时间:2013-09-24 14:19来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):美国薄荷 学名( Scientific Name ): Monarda didyma L. 英文名( English Common Name ): scarlet beebalm 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Monarda coccinea Michx. Monarda contorta C.Morren Monard
中文名(Chinese Name):美国薄荷
学名(Scientific Name):Monarda didyma L.
英文名(English Common Name):scarlet beebalm
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Monarda coccinea Michx.  Monarda contorta C.Morren  Monarda didyma var. angustifolia Torr.  Monarda didynama Stokes  Monarda kalmiana Pursh  Monarda oswegoensis W.Barton
科属(Family & Genus):唇形科(Labiatae)美国薄荷属
形态特征(Description):直立一年生草本。茎锐四稜形,具条纹,近无毛,仅在节上或上部沿稜上被长柔毛,毛易脱落。叶片卵状披针形,长达10厘米,宽达4.5厘米,先端渐尖或长渐尖,基部圆形,边缘具不等大的锯齿,纸质,上面绿色,下面较淡,上面疏被长柔毛,毛渐脱落,下面仅沿脉上被长柔毛,余部散布凹陷腺点,侧脉9-10对,在上面平坦下面凸起,中肋在上面明显凹陷,下面十分隆起,网脉仅在下面清晰可见;茎中部叶柄长达2.5厘米,向上渐短,在顶部近无柄,腹凹背凸,基部略宽大,幼时密被长柔毛,老时变秃净。轮伞花序多花,在茎顶密集成径达6厘米的头状花序;苞片叶状,染红色,短于花序,具短柄,全缘,疏被柔毛,下面具凹陷腺点,小苞片线状钻形,长约1厘米,基部宽1.5毫米,先端长尾尖,具肋,被微柔毛,染红色;花梗短,长约1毫米,被微柔毛。花萼管状,稍弯曲,长约1厘米,宽2.5毫米,干时紫红色,具15脉,外面沿肋上被短柔毛,内面在喉部被稀疏硬毛,萼齿5,钻状三角形,长约1毫米,先端具硬刺尖头,等大。花冠紫红色,长约为花萼2.5倍,外面被微柔毛,内面在冠筒被微柔毛,冠檐二唇形,上唇直立,先端稍外弯,全缘,下唇3裂,平展,中裂片较狭长,顶端微缺。能育雄蕊2,靠着上唇微外伸,花丝无毛,花药线形,中部着生。花柱超出雄蕊,无毛,先端为不相等2浅裂。花期7月。
分布(Distribution):原产美洲,我国各地园圃有栽培。
用途(Use):
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 223
Monarda didyma Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 22. 1753.
美国薄荷 mei guo bo he| Lamiaceae  | Monarda
Plants annual. Stems subglabrous, villous on nodes and at apex along angles, glabrescent. Petiole to 2.5 cm, nearly lacking apically, base slightly dilated; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, to 10 × 4.5 cm, papery, adaxially villous or glabrescent, abaxially sparsely, impressed glandular, villous on veins, base rounded, margin unequally serrate, apex acuminate. Verticillasters in terminal capitula to 6 cm in diam.; bracts short petiolate, leaflike, margin entire, red, shorter than capitula; bracteoles linear-subulate, ca. 10 × 1.5 mm, long caudate, puberulent, red. Pedicel ca. 1 mm, puberulent. Calyx slightly curved, ca. 10 × 2.5 mm, purple-red when dry, veins pubescent, throat sparsely hirsute; teeth equal, subulate-triangular, ca. 1 mm, apex spinescent. Corolla purple-red, ca. 2.5 cm, puberulent; upper lip straight, slightly recurved outward, margin entire; lower lip spreading, with middle lobe narrower, emarginate. Fl. Jul.
Cultivated in China [North America].




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