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留兰香Mentha spicata

时间:2013-09-24 14:15来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):留兰香 学名( Scientific Name ): Mentha spicata L. 英文名( English Common Name ): spearmint 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 绿薄荷、香薄荷 异名( Synonym ): Mentha viridis (L.) L. Mentha spicata var. viridi
中文名(Chinese Name):留兰香
学名(Scientific Name):Mentha spicata L.
英文名(English Common Name):spearmint
别名(Chinese Common Name):绿薄荷、香薄荷
异名(Synonym):Mentha viridis (L.) L.  Mentha spicata var. viridis L.  Mentha cordifolia auct.
科属(Family & Genus):唇形科(Labiatae)薄荷属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本。茎直立,高40-130厘米,无毛或近于无毛,绿色,钝四稜形,具槽及条纹,不育枝仅贴地生。叶无柄或近于无柄,卵状长圆形或长圆状披针形,长3-7厘米,宽1-2厘米,先端锐尖,基部宽楔形至近圆形,边缘具尖锐而不规则的锯齿,草质,上面绿色,下面灰绿色,侧脉6-7对,与中脉在上面多少凹陷下面明显隆起且带白色。轮伞花序生于茎及分枝顶端,呈长4-10厘米、间断但向上密集的圆柱形穗状花序;小苞片线形,长过于花萼,长5-8毫米,无毛;花梗长2毫米,无毛。花萼钟形,花时连齿长2毫米,外面无毛,具腺点,内面无毛,5脉,不显著,萼齿5,三角状披针形,长1毫米。花冠淡紫色,长4毫米,两面无毛,冠筒长2毫米,冠檐具4裂片,裂片近等大,上裂片微凹。雄蕊4,伸出,近等长,花丝丝状,无毛,花药卵圆形,2室。花柱伸出花冠很多,先端相等2浅裂,裂片钻形。花盘平顶。子房褐色,无毛。花期7-9月。
分布(Distribution):原产南欧、加那利群岛、马德拉群岛、俄罗斯。我国新疆有野生。
用途(Use):植株含芳香油,含油率0.6-0.7%,其油称留兰香油或绿薄荷油。嫩枝、叶常作调味香料食用。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 238
Mentha spicata Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 576. 1753.
留兰香 liu lan xiang | Lamiaceae  | Mentha
Mentha spicata var. viridis Linnaeus; M. viridis (Linnaeus) Linnaeus.
Herbs stoloniferous. Stems erect, 40-130 cm, glabrous or subglabrous, striate. Leaves sessile or subsessile, ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 3-7 × 1-2 cm, base broadly cuneate to rounded, margin irregularly serrate, apex acute. Verticillasters in cylindric terminal spikes 4-10 cm, spikes interrupted at base; bracteoles linear, 5-8 mm. Pedicel ca. 2 mm. Calyx campanulate, ca. 2 mm, glandular, obscurely 5-veined; teeth triangular-lanceolate, ca. 1 mm. Corolla purplish, ca. 4 mm, glabrous, tube ca. 2 mm; lobes subequal, apex emarginate. Ovary brown, glabrous. Fl. Jul-Sep.
Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Russia, Turkmenistan; Africa, SW Asia; Europe]
Cultivated in China. Source of spearmint oil, an essential oil used for flavoring candies, toothpaste, chewing gum. Dried tops and leaves are used medicinally as a stimulant, carminative, and nervine. It contains carvone.


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