织梦CMS - 轻松建站从此开始!

花卉图片网

当前位置: 主页 > 草本花卉 >

蝴蝶花Iris japonica

时间:2013-09-24 12:56来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):蝴蝶花 学名( Scientific Name ): Iris japonica Thunb. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 日本鸢尾、兰花草 异名 ( Synonym ): Iris fimbriata Vent. Xiphion fimbriatum (Vent.) Alef.
中文名(Chinese Name):蝴蝶花
学名(Scientific Name):Iris japonica Thunb.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):日本鸢尾、兰花草
异名Synonym):Iris fimbriata Vent.  Xiphion fimbriatum (Vent.) Alef.  Evansia chinensis (Curtis) Salisb.  Evansia fimbriata (Vent.) Decne.  Evansia japonica (Thunb.) Klatt
科属Family & Genus):鸢尾科(Iridaceae)鸢尾属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本。根状茎可分为较粗的直立根状茎和纤细的横走根状茎,直立的根状茎扁圆形,具多数较短的节间,棕褐色,横走的恨状茎节间长,黄白色;须根生于根状茎的节上,分枝多。叶基生,暗绿色,有光泽,近地面处带红紫色,剑形,长25-60厘米,宽1.5-3厘米,顶端渐尖,无明显的中脉。花茎直立,高于叶片,顶生稀疏总状聚伞花序,分枝5-12个,与苞片等长或略超出;苞片叶状,3-5枚,宽披针形或卵圆形,长0.8-1.5厘米,顶端钝,其中包含有2-4朵花,花淡蓝色或蓝紫色,直径4.5-5 厘米;花梗伸出苞片之外,长1.5-2.5厘米;花被管明显,长1.1-1.5厘米,外花被裂片倒卵形或椭圆形,长2.5-3厘米,宽1.4-2厘米,顶端微凹,基部楔形,边缘波状,有细齿裂,中脉上有隆起的黄色鸡冠状附属物,内花被裂片椭圆形或狭倒卵形,长2.8-3厘米,宽1.5-2.1厘米,爪部楔形,顶端微凹,边缘有细齿裂,花盛开时向外展开;雄蕊长0.8-1.2 厘米,花药长椭圆形,白色;花柱分枝较内花被裂片略短,中肋处淡蓝色,顶端裂片繸状丝裂,子房纺锤形,长0.7-1厘米。蒴果椭圆状柱形,长2.5-3厘米,直径1.2-1.5厘米,顶端微尖,基部钝,无喙,6条纵肋明显,成熟时自顶端开裂至中部;种子黑褐色,为木规则的多面体,无附属物。花期3-4月,果期5-6月。
分布(Distribution):产江苏、安徽、浙江、福建、湖北、湖南、广东、广西、陕西、甘肃、四川、贵州、云南。生于山坡较阴蔽而湿润的草地、疏林下或林缘草地。日本也有。
用途(Use):为民间草药,用于清热解毒、消瘀逐水,治疗小儿发烧、肺病咳血、喉痛、外伤瘀血等。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 24 Page 307      
Iris japonica Thunberg, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 2: 327. 1794.
蝴蝶花 hu die hua| Iridaceae  | Iris
Iris chinensis Curtis (1797), not Bunge (1833); I. fimbriata Ventenat.
Rhizomes dimorphic: suberect, thick; creeping, long, slender. Leaves basal, dark or yellowish green, glossy on 1 surface, dull on other, reddish purple at base, sword-shaped, 25--60 × 1.5--3 cm, midvein absent. Flowering stems erect, with 5--12 short, slender branches near apex; spathes 3--5, broadly lanceolate, 0.8--1.5 cm, 2--4-flowered, apex obtuse. Flowers pale bluish, 4.5--5.5 cm in diam.; pedicel 1.5--2.5 cm, stiff, persistent. Perianth tube 1.1--1.5 cm; outer segments obovate or elliptic, 2.5--3 × 1.4--2 cm, limb spreading, with blue blotching around central, yellow patch around prominent, yellow crest, margin denticulate, undulate, apex retuse; inner segments spreading obliquely, elliptic or narrowly obovate, 2.8--3 × 1.5--2.1 cm, margin denticulate, undulate. Stamens 0.8--1.2 cm; anthers white. Ovary 7--10 mm. Style branches pale blue; terminal lobes fimbriate. Capsule ellipsoid-cylindric, 2.5--3 × 1.2--1.5 cm, apex not beaked. Seeds dark brown, with small aril. Fl. Mar--Apr, fr. May--Jun. 2 n = 24*, 28, 34, 36, 54, 56*.
Open forest margins, wet grasslands; 500--800 m (2400--3400 m in SW China). Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Myanmar].
This species is widely cultivated and it is possible that the high-elevation plants from SW China are not native but naturalized; however, they merit further investigation. White-flowered forms from Zhejiang have been recognized as Iris japonica f. pallescens P. L. Chiu & Y. T. Zhao (in Y. T. Zhao, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18: 58. 1980).




(责任编辑:徐晔春)
顶一下
(5)
83.3%
踩一下
(1)
16.7%
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 验证码:点击我更换图片