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滨刺草Spinifex littoreus

时间:2013-09-11 13:53来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):滨刺草 学名( Scientific Name ): Spinifex littoreus (Burm. f.) Merr. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 老鼠艻、腊刺、鬣刺 异名( Synonym ): Stipa littorea Burm. f. Spinifex squa
中文名(Chinese Name):滨刺草
学名(Scientific Name):Spinifex littoreus (Burm. f.) Merr.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):老鼠艻、腊刺、鬣刺
异名(Synonym):Stipa littorea Burm. f.  Spinifex squarrosus L.  Stipa spinifex L.  Spinifex dioicus Buch.-Ham. ex Dillwyn  Spinifex elegans Buse
科属Family & Genus):禾本科(Gramineae)鬣刺属
形态特征(Description):多年生小灌木状草本。须根长而坚韧。秆粗壮、坚实,表面被白蜡质,平卧地面部分长达数米,向上直立部分高30-100厘米,径粗3-5毫米。叶鞘宽阔,基部达1.4厘米,无毛或微被毛,边缘具缘毛,常互相覆盖;叶舌微小,顶端有长2-3毫米的不整齐白色纤毛;叶片线形,质坚而厚,长5-20厘米,宽2-3毫米,下部对折,上部卷合如针状,常呈弓状弯曲,边缘粗糙,无毛。雄穗轴长4-9厘米,生数枚雄小穗,先端延伸于顶生小穗之上而成针状:雄小穗长9-11毫米,柄长约1毫米;颖草质,广披针形,先端急尖,具7-9脉,第一颖长约为小穗的1/2,第二颖长约为小穗的2/3;外稃长8-10毫米,具5脉:内稃与外稃近等长,具2脉;花药线形,长约5毫米;雌穗轴针状,长6-16厘米、粗糙,基部单生1雌小穗;雌小穗长约12毫米;颖草质,具11-13脉,第一颖略短于小穗;第一外稃具5脉,与小穗等长,无内稃;第二外稃厚纸质,具5脉,内稃与之近等长。花果期夏秋季。
分布(Distribution):产台湾、福建、广东、广西等省区,生于海边沙滩。印度、缅甸、斯里兰卡、马来西亚、越南和菲律宾也有。
用途(Use):本种秆平卧地面,能防海浪冲刷,为优良的海边固沙植物。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 22 Page 553
Spinifex littoreus (N. L. Burman) Merrill, Philipp. J. Sci. 7: 229. 1912.
老鼠艻 lao shu li| Poaceae  | Spinifex
Stipa littorea N. L. Burman, Fl. Indica 29. 1767; Spinifex squarrosus Linnaeus; Stipa spinifex Linnaeus.
Culms stoloniferous, hard, stout, many-noded, rooting and copiously branching at nodes, flowering shoots ascending to 30–100 cm, internodes farinose. Leaf sheaths broad, rounded on back, imbricate; leaf blades distichous, very tough, involute-subulate, curved, 5–20 × 0.2–0.3 cm, margins scabrous, apex spiny; ligule densely ciliate. Staminate inflorescence of 2–5 clustered turbinate heads 5–10 × 6–8 cm; racemes 3–6 cm, bearing 5–10 loosely imbricate spikelets. Staminate spikelets lanceolate, 8–12 mm; glumes oblong-lanceolate, 7–9-veined, lower glume 1/2 spikelet length, upper glume 2/3 spikelet length; lower lemma 5-veined, 8–10 mm, palea with winged ciliate keels; upper lemma with unkeeled palea. Female inflorescence globose, 20–35 cm in diam.; racemes unispiculate with needle-like 10–18 cm rachis. Female spikelets lanceolate-oblong, 10–20 mm, acuminate; glumes oblong-lanceolate, low-er glume many-veined, upper glume 7–9-veined; lower lemma ovate-lanceolate, 5-veined, palea absent; upper lemma lanceolate, yellowish. Fl. and fr. summer-autumn.
Sandy beaches, seashore dunes. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
This species is an efficient sand binder, forming large colonies and stabilizing dunes. The female inflorescences act as tumbleweeds. The seeds within are dispersed as the spiky head is transported along the coast by wind and sea.





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