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柠檬香茅 Cymbopogon citratus

时间:2013-09-11 13:42来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):柠檬香茅 学名( Scientific Name ): Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex Nees) Stapf 英文名( English Common Name ): lemon grass 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 香茅 异名( Synonym ): 科属( Family Genus ): 禾本科(
中文名(Chinese Name):柠檬香茅
学名(Scientific Name):Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex Nees) Stapf
英文名(English Common Name):lemon grass
别名(Chinese Common Name):香茅
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):禾本科(Gramineae)香茅属
形态特征(Description):多年生密丛型具香味草本。秆高达2米,粗壮,节下被白色蜡粉。叶鞘无毛,不向 外反卷,内面浅绿色;叶舌质厚,长约1毫米;叶片长30-90厘米,宽5-15毫米,顶端长渐尖,平滑或边缘粗糙。伪圆锥花序具多次复合分枝,长约50厘米,疏散,分枝细长,顶端下垂;佛焰苞长1.5(-2)厘米;总状花序不等长,具3-4或5-6节,长约1.5厘米;总梗无毛;总状花序轴节间及小穗柄长2.5-4毫米,边缘疏生柔毛,顶端膨大或具齿裂。无柄小穗线状披针形,长5-6毫米,宽约0.7毫米;第一颖背部扁平或下凹成槽,无脉,上部具窄翼,边缘有短纤毛;第二外稃狭小,长约3毫米,先端具2微齿,无芒或具长约0.2毫米之芒尖。有柄小穗长4.5-5毫米。染色体2n=40 (Gupta B. K.,1965),60 (Babu,1936)。花果期夏季,少见有开花者。
分布(Distribution):我国南北均有栽培,广泛种植于热带地区。
用途(Use):茎叶提取柠檬香精油,供制香水、肥皂,并可食用,嫩茎叶为制咖喱调香料的原料; 药用有通络驱风之效。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 22 Page 624, 627      
Cymbopogon citratus (Candolle) Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew. 1906: 357. 1906.
香茅 xiang mao | Poaceae  | Cymbopogon
Andropogon citratus Candolle, Cat. Pl. Horti Monsp. 78. 1813.
Perennial, shortly rhizomatous. Culms tufted, robust, up to 2 m tall, ca. 4 mm in diam., farinose below nodes. Leaf sheaths glabrous, greenish inside; leaf blades glaucous, 30–90 × 0.5–2 cm, both surfaces scabrid, base gradually narrowed, apex long acuminate; ligule ca. 1 mm. Spathate compound panicle large, lax, up to 50 cm, drooping, branches slender; spatheoles reddish or yellowish brown, 1.5–2 cm; racemes 1.5–2 cm; rachis internodes and pedicels 2.5–4 mm, loosely villous on margins; pedicel of homogamous pair not swollen. Sessile spikelet linear-lanceolate, 5–6 × ca. 0.7 mm; lower glume flat or slightly concave toward base, sharply 2-keeled, keels wingless, scabrid, veinless between keels; upper lemma narrow, entire and awnless, or slightly 2-lobed with ca. 0.2 mm mucro. Pedicelled spikelet 4–5 mm. Fl. and fr. summer. 2n = 40.
Commonly cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [origin unknown; cultivated in tropical Asia and elsewhere].
This species (Lemon Grass), known only from cultivation, is grown on a large scale in parts of tropical Asia and South America for the lemon-scented oil extracted from its leaves. The oil is used for both medicinal and culinary purposes. Flowers are seldom produced.


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