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臂形草Brachiaria eruciformis

TAG标签: 禾本科 Gramineae
时间:2013-09-11 13:36来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 臂形草 学名( Scientific Name ): Brachiaria eruciformis (J. E. Smith) Griseb. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Brachiaria isachne (Roth ex Roem. et Schult.)
中文名(Chinese Name): 臂形草
学名(Scientific Name):Brachiaria eruciformis (J. E. Smith) Griseb.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Brachiaria isachne (Roth ex Roem. et Schult.) Stapf  Moorochloa eruciformis (Sm.) Veldkamp  Panicum eruciforme Sm.  Panicum isachne Roth ex Roem. et Schult.  Panicum caucasicum Trin.  Panicum wightii Nees  Panicum wightianum Arn. & Nees ex Nees  Brachiaria eruciformis var. divaricata Basappa & Muniy.  Milium alternans Bubani  Panicum isachne var. mexicana Beal  Brachiaria cruciformis Griseb.  Panicum pubinode Hochst. ex A.Rich.  Panicum anisostachium Bojer  Urochloa eruciformis (Sm.) C.Nelson, Sutherl. & Fern.Casas  Panicum isachne var. mexicanum Vasey ex Beal
科属(Family & Genus):禾本科(Gramineae)臂形草属Brachiaria
形态特征(Description):一年生草本,高30-40厘米。秆纤细,基部倾斜,节上生根,多分枝,节带具白柔毛。叶鞘无毛或鞘缘疏生疣毛;叶舌退化呈一圈白色繸毛;叶片线状披针形,扁平,内卷,长1.5-10.5厘米,宽3-6毫米,边缘齿状粗糙,密生脱落性细毛。圆锥花序由4-5枚总状花序组成,总状花序长5-12厘米;穗轴被纤毛,棱边粗糙;小穗卵形,长约2毫米,被纤毛,具长约0.2毫米的柄;第一颖长0.2-0.3毫米,膜质,无毛,顶端下凹;第二颖与小穗等长,具5脉,第一外稃与第二颖同形,具5脉,内稃狭窄;第二外稃长圆形,坚硬,光滑,长约1.5毫米,边缘稍内卷,包着同质的内稃。染色体2n=18(Delay, 1954)。
分布(Distribution):产贵州、福建、云南;生于山坡草地或旱田中。分布于地中海,经非洲北部至印度。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 22 Page 520
Brachiaria eruciformis (Smith) Grisebach, Fl. Ross. 4: 469. 1853.
臂形草 bi xing cao | Poaceae  | Brachiaria
Panicum eruciforme Smith in Sibthorp & Smith, Fl. Graeca 1: 44, t. 59. 1806; Brachiaria isachne (Roth ex Roemer & Schultes) Stapf; Echinochloa eruciformis (Smith) Koch; Moorochloa eruciformis (Smith) Veldkamp; P. caucasicum Trinius; P. isachne Roth ex Roemer & Schultes.
Annual. Culms loosely tufted, slender, much branched, geniculately ascending, 30–40 cm tall, nodes softly hairy. Leaf sheaths glabrous or loosely tuberculate-hairy; leaf blades linear-lanceolate, 1.5–10.5 × 0.3–0.6 cm, glabrous or pilose; ligule ciliate. Inflorescence axis 3–6 cm; racemes 4–10, 1–3 cm, erect or narrowly ascending; rachis narrow, triquetrous, ciliate or scabrous; spikelets single, in 2 rows, overlapping. Spikelets elliptic, 1.8–3 mm, pilose, subacute; lower glume 0.2–0.3 mm, membranous, glabrous; upper glume and lower lemma as long as spikelet, 5-veined; upper floret readily deciduous, oblong, ca. 1.5 mm, thinly crustaceous, smooth, glossy, apex obtuse. Fl. and fr. summer–autumn. 2n = 18.
Open and disturbed situations on hill slopes and in dry fields as an arable weed. Fujian, Guizhou, Yunnan [India, Malaysia, Thailand; N Africa, Mediterranean region].
This is the only species of Brachiaria occurring in China with a fertile floret which is shed from the mature spikelet. The fertile floret is also distinctive due to its smooth, glossy texture and obtuse apex.
This species and two close relatives in Africa have been placed in the separate genus Moorochloa Veldkamp.

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