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蓖麻Ricinus communis

时间:2013-09-10 12:18来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):蓖麻 学名( Scientific Name ): Ricinus communis L. 英文名( English Common Name ): castorbean 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 大麻子 异名( Synonym ): 科属( Family Genus ): 大戟科(Euphorbiaceae)蓖麻属
中文名(Chinese Name):蓖麻
学名(Scientific Name):Ricinus communis L.
英文名(English Common Name):castorbean
别名(Chinese Common Name):大麻子
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):大戟科(Euphorbiaceae)蓖麻属
形态特征(Description):一年生粗壮草本或草质灌木,高达5米;小枝、叶和花序通常被白霜,茎多液汁。叶轮廓近圆形,长和宽达40厘米或更大,掌状7-11裂,裂缺几达中部,裂片卵状长圆形或披针形,顶端急尖或渐尖,边缘具锯齿;掌状脉7-11条。网脉明显;叶柄粗壮,中空,长可达40厘米,顶端具2枚盘状腺体,基部具盘状腺体;托叶长三角形,长2-3厘米,早落。总状花序或圆锥花序,长15-30厘米或更长;苞片阔三角形,膜质,早落;雄花:花萼裂片卵状三角形,长7-10毫米;雄蕊束众多;雌花:萼片卵状披针形,长5-8毫米,凋落;子房卵状,直径约5毫米,密生软刺或无刺,花柱红色,长约4毫米,顶部2裂,密生乳头状突起。蒴果卵球形或近球形,长1.5-2.5厘米,果皮具软刺或平滑;种子椭圆形,微扁平,长8-18毫米,平滑,斑纹淡褐色或灰白色;种阜大。花期几全年或6-9月(栽培)。
分布(Distribution):原产地可能在非洲东北部的肯尼亚或索马里;现广布于全世界热带地区或栽培于热带至温暖带各国。
用途(Use):蓖麻油在工业上用途广,在医药上作缓泻剂
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 11 Page 248
Ricinus communis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1007. 1753.
蓖麻 bi ma | Euphorbiaceae  | Ricinus
Herbs erect, often single-stemmed but sometimes bushlike or treelike, 2-5(-10) m tall; younger parts glaucous, whole plant often reddish or purplish. Stipules connate, 2-3 cm; petiole 20-40 cm; leaf blade palmately 7-11-lobed, 30-50(-100) × 30-50(-100) cm, margin serrate. Inflorescence to 30 cm. Male flowers: pedicels 5-17 mm; calyx lobes 5-8 × 3-5 mm; stamens 7-8 mm. Female flowers: pedicels 5-10 mm; sepals ca. 5 mm; styles 2-5 mm. Fruiting pedicel to 45 mm; capsule ellipsoid or ovoid, 1.5-2.5 cm, echinate, spines to ca. 5 mm, sometimes smooth. Seed 7-12 mm, grayish, silvery, or beige with darker markings; caruncle depressed-conical, 2-3 mm wide. Fl. Jun-Sep, or Jan-Dec.
Cultivated, ruderal weed, sometimes naturalized in riverbeds; below 100-500(-2300) m. Throughout China [cultivated worldwide].
The seeds yield castor oil, used medicinally and as an industrial lubricant. The seeds are highly toxic.




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