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泽兰Eupatorium japonicum

时间:2013-07-23 08:08来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):泽兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Eupatorium japonicum Thunb. ex Murray 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 白头婆 异名( Synonym ): Eupatorium japonicum var. tripartitum Makino Eupa






中文名(Chinese Name):泽兰
学名(Scientific Name):Eupatorium japonicum Thunb. ex Murray
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):白头婆
异名(Synonym):Eupatorium japonicum var. tripartitum Makino  Eupatorium chinense Linn.  Eupatorium fortunei var. tripartitum (Makino) Nakai  Eupatorium fortunei var. simplicifolium (Makino) Nakai  Eupatorium japonicum f. aureo-reticulatum Makino  Eupatorium japonicum var. simplicifolium Makino  Eupatorium wallichii DC.  Eupatorium fortunei f. aureo-reticulatum (Makino) Nakai
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)泽兰属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高50-200厘米。根茎短,有多数细长侧根。茎直立,下部或至中部或全部淡紫红色,基部径达1.5厘米,通常不分枝,或仅上部有伞房状花序分枝,全部茎枝被白色皱波状短柔毛,花序分枝上的毛较密,茎下部或全部花期脱毛或疏毛。叶对生,有叶柄,柄长1-2厘米,质地稍厚;中部茎叶椭圆形或长椭圆形或卵状长椭圆形或披针形,长6-20厘米,宽2-6.5厘米,基部宽或狭楔形,顶端渐尖,羽状脉,侧脉约7对,在下面突起;自中部向上及向下部的叶渐小,与茎中部叶同形,基部茎叶花期枯萎;全部茎叶两面粗涩,被皱波状长或短柔毛及黄色腺点,下面、下面沿脉及叶柄上的毛较密,边缘有粗或重粗锯齿。头状花序在茎顶或枝端排成紧密的伞房花序,花序径通常3-6厘米,少有大型复伞房花序而花序径达20厘米的。总苞钟状,长5-6毫米,含5个小花;总苞片覆瓦状排列,3层;外层极短,长1-2毫米,披针形;中层及内层苞片渐长,长5-6毫米,长椭圆形或长椭圆状披针形;全部苞片绿色或带紫红色,顶端钝或圆形。花白色或带红紫色或粉红色,花冠长5毫米,外面有较稠密的黄色腺点。瘦果淡黑褐色,椭圆状,长3.5毫米,5棱,被多数黄色腺点,无毛;冠毛白色,长约5毫米。花果期6-11月。海拔120-3000米。
分布(Distribution):产我国大部分省区,生于山坡草地、林下、灌丛中及水湿地。日本及朝鲜也有。
用途(Use):本种全草药用,性凉,消热消炎。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 884, 885, 886
Eupatorium japonicum Thunberg in Murray, Syst. Veg., ed. 14,. 737. 1784.
白头婆 bai tou po | Asteraceae  | Eupatorium
Eupatorium chinense Linnaeus var. simplicifolium (Makino) Kitamura; E. chinense var. tozanense (Hayata) Kitamura; E. fortunei Turczaninow f. aureoreticulatum (Makino) Nakai; E. fortunei var. simplicifolium (Makino) Nakai; E. fortunei var. tripartitum (Makino) Nakai; E. japonicum f. aureoreticulatum Makino; E. japonicum var. dissectum Makino; E. japonicum var. simplicifolium Makino; E. japonicum var. tozanense (Hayata) Kitamura; E. japonicum var. tripartitum Makino; E. japonicum var. wallichii (Candolle) Yamamoto; E. tozanense Hayata; E. wallichii Candolle.
Herbs perennial, 50-200 cm tall. Rhizomes short, with numerous fibrous roots. Stems erect, purplish red, usually simple or corymbose synflorescence branched in upper part, white crisped-puberulent, more dense on synflorescence branches, glabrescent or sparsely hairy in lower part. Leaves opposite; petiole 0.5-2 cm, rather thick; median stem leaves elliptic, narrowly elliptic, ovate-elliptic, or lanceolate, 6-20 × 2-6.5 cm, pinnately veined, lateral veins 7-paired, abaxially prominent, base broadly or narrowly cuneate, margin sometimes 3-partite, apex acuminate; basal stem leaves withered by anthesis; upper leaves smaller, homomorphic with median leaves; both surfaces scabrid, crisped-villous or puberulent and yellow glandular, more densely hairy abaxially on veins and on petiole; margin coarsely or doubly serrate. Capitula apically densely corymbose, synflorescence usually 3-6 cm in diam., rarely forming a large compound corymbose synflorescence to 20 cm in diam. Involucre campanulate, 5-6 mm, 5-flowered; phyllaries imbricate, 3-seriate; outer phyllaries very short, lanceolate, 1-2 mm, median and inner phyllaries gradually longer, lanceolate, narrowly elliptic, or elliptic-lanceolate, 5-6 mm, green or purple-tinged, apex obtuse or rounded. Florets white, red-purple, or pink; corolla ca. 5 mm, with dense yellow glands. Achenes black-brown, elliptic, ca. 3.5 mm, 5-angled, with many yellow glands, glabrous. Pappus white, ca. 5 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun-Nov.
Grasslands on slopes, open forests, thickets, wet places, riverbanks; 100-3000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea].
(责任编辑:徐晔春)
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