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菊苣Cichorium intybus

时间:2013-07-23 07:51来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):菊苣 学名( Scientific Name ): Cichorium intybus L. 英文名( English Common Name ): chicory 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 蓝菊 异名( Synonym ): Cichorium commune Pall. Cichorium perenne Stokes Cichorium c






中文名(Chinese Name):菊苣
学名(Scientific Name):Cichorium intybus L.
英文名(English Common Name):chicory
别名(Chinese Common Name):蓝菊
异名(Synonym): Cichorium commune Pall.  Cichorium perenne Stokes  Cichorium cosnia Buch.-Ham.  Cichorium glabratum C.Presl  Cichorium balearicum Porta  Cichorium byzantinum Clem.  Cichorium hirsutum Gren.  Cichorium cicorea Dumort.  Cichorium glaucum Hoffmanns. & Link  Cichorium caeruleum Gilib.  Cichorium officinale Gueldenst. ex Ledeb.  Cichorium rigidum Salisb.  Cichorium intybus f. alba Farw.  Cichorium intybus f. crispum Makino  Cichorium intybus f. rubicunda Farw.  Cichorium intybus f. sativum (DC.) Bisch.  Cichorium intybus subsp. balearicum (Porta) Gand.  Cichorium intybus subsp. foliosum (Hegi) Janch.  Cichorium intybus subsp. glaucum (Hoffmanns. & Link) Tzvelev  Cichorium intybus subsp. sativum Janch.  Cichorium intybus subsp. sylvestre   Cichorium intybus var. foliosum Hegi  Cichorium intybus var. glabratum (C.Presl) Batt.  Cichorium intybus var. glabrum (C.Presl) Gren. & Godr.  Cichorium intybus var. longipes Faure & Maire  Cichorium intybus var. radicosum Alef.  Cichorium intybus var. sativum (Bisch.) Janch.
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)菊苣属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高40-100厘米。茎直立,单生,分枝开展或极开展,全部茎枝绿色,有条棱,被极稀疏的长而弯曲的糙毛或刚毛或几无毛。基生叶莲座状,花期生存,倒披针状长椭圆形,包括基部渐狭的叶柄,全长15-34厘米,宽2-4厘米,基部渐狭有翼柄,大头状倒向羽状深裂或羽状深裂或不分裂而边缘有稀疏的尖锯齿,侧裂片3-6对或更多,顶侧裂片较大,向下侧裂片渐小,全部侧裂片镰刀形或不规则镰刀形或三角形。茎生叶少数,较小,卵状倒披针形至披针形,无柄,基部圆形或戟形扩大半抱茎。全部叶质地薄,两面被稀疏的多细胞长节毛,但叶脉及边缘的毛较多。头状花序多数,单生或数个集生于茎顶或枝端,或2-8个为一组沿花枝排列成穗状花序。总苞圆柱状,长8-12毫米;总苞片2层,外层披针形,长8-13毫米,宽2-2.5毫米,上半部绿色,草质,边缘有长缘毛,背面有极稀疏的头状具柄的长腺毛或单毛,下半部淡黄白色,质地坚硬,革质;内层总苞片线状披针形,长达1.2厘米, 宽约2毫米,下部稍坚硬,上部边缘及背面通常有极稀疏的头状具柄的长腺毛并杂有长单毛。舌状小花蓝色,长约14毫米,有色斑。瘦果倒卵状、椭圆状或倒楔形,外层瘦果压扁,紧贴内层总苞片,3-5棱,顶端截形,向下收窄,褐色,有棕黑色色斑。冠毛极短,2-3层,膜片状,长0.2-0.3毫米。花果期5-10月。
分布(Distribution):分布北京、黑龙江、辽宁、山西、陕西、新疆、江西。生于滨海荒地、河边、水沟边或山坡。欧洲、亚洲、北非广布。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 350
Cichorium intybus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 813. 1753.
菊苣 ju ju | Asteraceae  | Cichorium
Herbs 40-110 cm tall, perennial, with a strong taproot. Stem usually solitary, erect; branches spreading-ascending, subglabrous. Basal leaves rosulate, obovate to oblanceolate, 15-34 × 2-4 cm, attenuate into a petiole-like basal portion, undivided to usually runcinately pinnatipartite, sparsely covered with long multicellular hairs, base attenuate, margin dentate; lateral lobes 3-6 pairs, triangular; terminal lobe distinctly larger than lateral ones, apex rounded to acute. Stem leaves similar to basal leaves but smaller and less divided, gradually reduced toward stem apex, base clasping, apex acute. Synflorescence of main axis and larger branches spiciform-paniculiform. Capitula axillary and terminal, solitary or in clusters of a few, sessile or on a several cm long, thick, and apically slightly inflated peduncle, with usually 15-20 florets. Involucre cylindric, 0.9-1.4 cm. Phyllaries abaxially sparsely with glandular or simple hairs, apex ± acute; outer phyllaries lanceolate, longest > 1/2 as long as to approaching inner ones in length, spreading-erect, margin ciliate; inner phyllaries linear-lanceolate. Florets blue or exceptionally pink or bluish white. Achene brown, subcylindric to obovoid, 2-3 mm, stout, rugulose, apex truncate. Pappus (0.1-)0.2-0.3 mm. Fl. May-Oct. 2n = 18.
By rivers, wastelands along seashores, slopes, by ditches; low elevations. ?Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, ?Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Taiwan, Xinjiang [N Africa, C and SW Asia, Europe].
Escaped as a ruderal weed in many parts of the world, this species was formerly cultivated as a medicinal plant but more recently is grown as an ornamental and coffee substitute.
A second species, Cichorium pumilum Jacquin (as C. glandulosum Boissier & A. Huet) was reported for Xinjiang (Y. P. Gu & Y. S. Chen, Fl. Tsinling. 1(5): 391. 1985; C. H. An, Fl. Xinjiang. 5: 386. 1999). The presence of this Mediterranean-SW Asian species is highly unlikely, and, as also concluded by Tzvelev (Rast. Tsentral. Azii 14b: 14. 2008), the description ("pappus scales ca. 0.1 mm") refers to populations within the range of variation of C. intybus (including C. glaucum Hoffmannsegg & Link; see also A. M. Kiers, Gorteria, Suppl. 5. 2000).
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