织梦CMS - 轻松建站从此开始!

花卉图片网

当前位置: 主页 > 草本花卉 >

飞廉Carduus nutans

时间:2013-07-23 07:43来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):飞廉 学名( Scientific Name ): Carduus nutans L. 英文名( English Common Name ): nodding plumeless thistle 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 垂头飞廉 异名( Synonym ): 科属( Family Genus ): 菊科(Compositae




中文名(Chinese Name):飞廉
学名(Scientific Name):Carduus nutans L.
英文名(English Common Name):nodding plumeless thistle
别名(Chinese Common Name):垂头飞廉
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)飞廉属
形态特征(Description):二年生或多年生草本,高30-100厘米。茎单生或少数茎成簇生,通常多分枝,分枝细长,极少不分枝,全部茎枝有条棱,被稀疏的蛛丝毛和多细胞长节毛,上部或接头状花序下部常呈灰白色,被密厚的蛛丝状绵毛。中下部茎叶长卵圆形或披针形,长(5)10-40厘米,宽(1.5)3-10厘米,羽状半裂或深裂,侧裂片5-7对,斜三角形或三角状卵形,顶端有淡黄白或褐色的针刺,针刺长达4-6毫米,边缘针刺较短;向上茎叶渐小,羽状浅裂或不裂,顶端及边缘具等样针刺,但通常比中下部茎叶裂片边缘及顶端的针刺为短。全部茎叶两面同色,两面沿脉被多细胞长节毛,但上面的毛稀疏,或两面兼被稀疏蛛丝毛,基部无柄,两侧沿茎下延成茎翼,但基部茎叶基部渐狭成短柄。茎翼连续,边缘有大小不等的三角形刺齿裂,齿顶和齿缘有黄白色或褐色的针刺,接头状花序下部的茎翼常呈针刺状。头状花序通常下垂或下倾,单生茎顶或长分枝的顶端,但不形成明显的伞房花序排列,植株通常生4-6个头状花序,极少多于4-6个头状花序,更少植株含1个头状花序的。总苞钟状或宽钟状;总苞直径4-7厘米。总苞片多层,不等长,覆瓦状排列,向内层渐长;最外层长三角形,长1.4-1.5厘米,宽4-4.5毫米;中层及内层三角状披针形,长椭圆形或椭圆状披针形,长1.5-2厘米,宽约5毫米;最内层苞片宽线形或线状披针形,长2-2.2厘米,宽2-3毫米。全部苞片无毛或被稀疏蛛丝状毛,除最内层苞片以外,其余各层苞片中部或上部曲膝状弯曲,中脉高起,在顶端成长或短针刺状伸出。小花紫色,长2.5厘米,檐部长1.2厘米,5深裂,裂片狭线形,长达6.5毫米,细管部长1.3厘米。瘦果灰黄色,楔形,稍压扁,长3.5毫米,有多数浅褐色的细纵线纹及细横皱纹,下部收窄,基底着生面稍偏斜,顶端斜截形,有果缘,果缘全缘,无锯齿。冠毛白色,多层,不等长,向内层渐长,长达2厘米;冠毛刚毛锯齿状,向顶端渐细,基部连合成环,整体脱落。花果期6-10月。
分布(Distribution):产新疆,生于海拔540-2300米的山谷、田边及草地中。欧洲、北非、俄罗斯也有。
用途(Use):优良蜜源植物。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21
1. Carduus nutans Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 821. 1753.
飞廉 fei lian | Asteraceae  | Carduus
Carduus armenus Boissier; C. coloratus Tamamschjan; C. leiophyllus Petrovič; C. nutans subsp. leiophyllus (Petrovič) Stojanov & Stefanov; C. schischkinii Tamamschjan; C. songoricus Tamamschjan; C. thoermeri Weinmann.
Herbs 30-100 cm tall, biennial or perennial. Stems grayish white, usually branched, sparsely cobwebby and hirsute below, densely cobwebby-felted above; wings continuous, unequally toothed; teeth triangular, margin and apex with spines. Leaves green, concolorous, hirsute along veins or sparsely cobwebby. Lower and middle cauline leaves sessile, ovate to lanceolate, (5-)10-40 × (1.5-)3-10 cm, pinnatifid or pinnatipartite; segments 5-7 pairs, obliquely triangular to triangular-ovate, margin spinulose, apex with a 4-6 mm spine. Upper cauline leaves similar but gradually smaller upward, pinnately lobed or entire. Capitula 4-6, solitary at end of stem and branches, ± nodding. Involucre ± broadly campanulate, 4-7 cm in diam. Phyllaries slightly constricted at or beyond middle then expanded into a lanceolate, spiny-tipped, and patent to recurved distal portion; outer phyllaries 14-15 × 4-5 mm; middle and inner phyllaries 1.5-2 × ca. 0.5 cm; innermost phyllaries broadly linear to linear-lanceolate, 2-2.2 × 0.2-0.3 cm, not constricted. Corolla purplish red, ca. 2.5 cm, tube ca. 1.3 cm. Achene grayish yellow with pale brown striae, ca. 3.5 mm. Pappus bristles white, unequal, to 2 cm. Fl. and fr. Jun-Sep. 2n = 16, 40.
By croplands, grasslands, valleys; 500-2300 m. N Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia; N Africa, SW Asia, Europe].
Carduus nutans is a variable species. At least fifteen subspecies have been recognized in the western, European part of its range. Carduus nutans subsp. nutans does not extend to Asia. The Chinese plants probably belong to C. nutans subsp. leiophyllus, as the synonymy indicates, but more research is needed. (责任编辑:徐晔春)
织梦二维码生成器
顶一下
(2)
50%
踩一下
(2)
50%
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 验证码:点击我更换图片