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肥皂草Saponaria officinalis

时间:2013-07-22 07:49来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 肥皂草 学名( Scientific Name ): Saponaria officinalis L. 英文名( English Common Name ): bouncingbet 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 石碱花 异名( Synonym ): Lychnis officinalis (L.) Scop.;Silene saponari








中文名(Chinese Name):肥皂草
学名(Scientific Name):Saponaria officinalis L.
英文名(English Common Name):bouncingbet
别名(Chinese Common Name):石碱花
异名(Synonym):Lychnis officinalis (L.) Scop.;Silene saponaria Fr. ex Willk. et Lange;Lychnis saponaria Jessen;Bootia saponaria Neck.;Bootia vulgaris Neck.
科属(Family & Genus):石竹科(Caryophyllaceae)肥皂草属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高30-70厘米。主根肥厚,肉质;根茎细、多分枝。茎直立,不分枝或上部分枝,常无毛。叶片椭圆形或椭圆状披针形,长5-10厘米,宽2-4厘米,基部渐狭成短柄状,微合生,半抱茎,顶端急尖,边缘粗糙,两面均无毛,具3或5基出脉。聚伞圆锥花序,小聚伞花序有3-7花;苞片披针形,长渐尖,边缘和中脉被稀疏短粗毛;花梗长3-8毫米,被稀疏短毛;花萼筒状,长18-20毫米,直径2.5-3.5毫米,绿色,有时暗紫色,初期被毛,纵脉20条,不明显,萼齿宽卵形,具凸尖;雌雄蕊柄长约1毫米;花瓣白色或淡红色,爪狭长,无毛,瓣片楔状倒卵形,长10-15毫米,顶端微凹缺;副花冠片线形;雄蕊和花柱外露。蒴果长圆状卵形,长约15毫米;种子圆肾形,长1.8-2毫米,黑褐色,具小瘤。2n=28。花期6-9月。
分布(Distribution):地中海沿岸有野生,我国北方栽培较多,在部分地区已逸生。
用途(Use):根入药,有祛痰、治气管炎、利尿作用。同时因含皂甙,可用于洗涤器物。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 6 Page 108
Saponaria officinalis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 408. 1753.
肥皂草 fei zao cao | Caryophyllaceae  | Saponaria
Lychnis officinalis (Linnaeus) Scopoli; Silene saponaria Fries ex Willkomm & Lange.
Herbs perennial, 30--70 cm tall. Axial root stout, fleshy, rhizome thin, many branched. Stem simple or branched above, usually glabrous. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 5--10 × 2--4 cm, 3- or 5-veined, base attenuate, slightly connate, semiclasping, apex acute. Inflorescence a thyrse, cymules 3--7-flowered; bracts lanceolate, margin and midvein sparsely hirtellous, apex long acuminate. Pedicel 3--8 mm, sparsely and shortly pubes-cent. Flowers large. Calyx green, sometimes dark purple, tubular, 1.8--2 cm × 2.5--3.5 mm, obscurely 20-veined; calyx teeth broadly ovate, apex acute. Petal limb white or pink, cuneate-obovate, 1--1.5 cm, apex emarginate; coronal scales linear. Gynophore ca. 1 mm. Stamens and styles exserted. Capsule cylindric-ovoid, ca. 1.5 cm. Seeds black-brown, globose-reniform, slightly compressed, 1.8--2 mm, tuberculate. Fl. Jun--Sep. 2n = 30.
Cultivated as an ornamental in parks, usually escaping. NE China [native to W Asia and Europe].
This species is used medicinally and as a soap.
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