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醉蝶花Tarenaya hassleriana

时间:2013-07-19 08:34来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):醉蝶花 学名( Scientific Name ): Tarenaya hassleriana (Chodat) Iltis 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 西洋白花菜 异名( Synonym ): Cleome spinosa Rojas Acosta;Cleome hassleria








中文名(Chinese Name):醉蝶花
学名(Scientific Name):Tarenaya hassleriana (Chodat) Iltis
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):西洋白花菜
异名(Synonym):Cleome spinosa Rojas Acosta;Cleome hassleriana Chodat
科属(Family & Genus):山柑科(Capparaceae)白花菜属
形态特征(Description):一年生强壮草本,高1-1.5米,全株被粘质腺毛,有特殊臭味,有托叶刺,刺长达4毫米,尖利,外弯。叶为具5-7小叶的掌状复叶,小叶草质,椭圆状披针形或倒披针形,中央小叶盛大,长6-8厘米,宽1.5-2.5厘米,最外侧的最小,长约2厘米,宽约5毫米,基部锲形,狭延成小叶柄,与叶柄相联接处稍呈蹼状,顶端渐狭或急尖,有短尖头,两面被毛,背面中脉有时也在侧脉上常有刺,侧脉10-15对;叶柄长2-8厘米,常有淡黄色皮刺。总状花序长达40厘米,密被粘质腺毛;苞片单1,叶状,卵状长圆形,长5-20毫米,无柄或近无柄,基部多少心形;花蕾圆筒形,长约2.5厘米,直径4毫米,无毛;花梗长2-3厘米,被短腺毛,单生于苞片腋内;萼片4,长的6毫米,长圆状椭圆形,顶端渐尖,外被腺毛;花瓣粉红色,少见白色,在芽中时覆瓦状排列,无毛,爪长5-12毫米,瓣片倒卵伏匙形,长10-15毫米,宽4-6毫米,顶端圆形,基部渐狭;雄蕊6,花丝长3.5-4厘米,花药线形,长7-8毫米;雌雄蕊柄长1-3毫米;雌蕊柄长4厘米,果时略有增长;子房线柱形,长3-4毫米,无毛;几无花柱,柱头头状。果圆柱形,长5.5-6.5厘米,中部直径约4毫米,两端梢钝,表面近平坦或徽呈念珠状,有细而密且不甚清晰的脉纹。种子直径约2毫米,表面近平滑或有小疣状突起,不具假种皮。花期初夏,果期夏末秋初。
分布(Distribution):产热带美洲,我国南北均有栽培。
用途(Use):我国无野生,各大城市常见栽培。原产热带美洲,现在全球热带至温带栽培以供观赏,也是一种优良的蜜源植物。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 7 Page 431
Tarenaya hassleriana (Chodat) Iltis, Novon. 17: 450. 2007.
醉蝶花 zui die hua| Cleomaceae  | Tarenaya
Cleome hassleriana Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boissier 6, App. 1: 12. 1898.
Herbs, annual, (0.5-)1-1.5 m tall. Stems branched, glandular pubescent. Stipular spines 1-3 mm. Petiole 2.5-7.5 cm, glandular pubescent, with scattered 1-3 mm spines; leaflets 5 or 7; leaflet blades elliptic to oblanceolate, 2-6(-12) × 1-3 cm, abaxially glandular pubescent, adaxially glandular, margin serrulate-denticulate, apex acute. Inflorescences 5-30 cm but 10-80 cm in fruit, pedunculate; bracts ovate, 1-2.5 cm. Pedicel 2-4.5 cm, glandular pubescent. Sepals green, equal, distinct, linear-lanceolate, 5-7 × 0.8-1.3 mm, reflexed after anthesis, persistent, glandular pubescent, margin entire, apex acuminate. Petals pink to purple but infrequently white or fading to white by second day, oblong to ovate, 2-3(-4.5) × 0.8-1.2 cm, clawed. Stamens purple, 3-5 cm; anthers green, 9-10 mm. Pistil 6-10 mm; style ca. 0.1 mm. Fruit gynophore 4.5-8 cm; capsule (2.5-)4-8 cm × 2.5-4 mm, in straight alignment with gynophore and pedicel, glabrous. Seeds 10-20 per capsule, dark brown to black, triangular to subspherical, 1.9-2.1 × 1.9-2.1 mm, tuberculate. Fl. (Apr-)May-Dec, fr. Jun-Dec. 2n = 20.
Roadsides, vacant lots, dry hillsides; near sea level to 800(-2000) m. Introduced and sparingly escaped in Guangdong, Hainan, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Zhejiang [native to South America (Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay); widely cultivated and occasionally naturalized in tropical and warm-temperate regions].
In cultivation and in various floras (including FRPS 32: 534: 1999), this species has been treated under the name Cleome spinosa Jacquin; however, Jacquin’s name and type apply to a different species, Tarenaya spinosa (Jacquin) Rafinesque.
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