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一把伞南星Arisaema erubescens

时间:2013-07-16 11:18来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):一把伞南星 学名( Scientific Name ): Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 虎掌南星、一把伞 异名( Synonym ): Arisaema formosanum var. stenophyllu






中文名(Chinese Name):一把伞南星
学名(Scientific Name):Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):虎掌南星、一把伞
异名(Synonym):Arisaema formosanum var. stenophyllum Hayata;Arisaema consanguineum var. divaricatum (Engl.) Engl.;Arisaema hypoglaucum Craib;Arisaema tatarinowii Schott;Arisaema divaricatum Engl.;rum erubescens Wall.;Arisaema fraternum Schott;Arisaema vituperatum Schott;Arisaema linearifolium J.T. Yin & Gusman
科属(Family & Genus):天南星科(Araceae)天南星属
形态特征(Description):块茎扁球形,直径可达6厘米,表皮黄色,有时淡红紫色。鳞叶绿白色、粉红色、有紫褐色斑纹。叶1,极稀2,叶柄长40-80厘米,中部以下具鞘,鞘部粉绿色,上部绿色,有时具褐色斑块;叶片放射状分裂,裂片无定数;幼株少则3-4枚,多年生植株有多至20枚的,常1枚上举,余放射状平展,披针形、长圆形至椭圆形,无柄,长(6-)8-24厘米,宽6-35毫米,长渐尖,具线形长尾(长可达7厘米)或否。花序柄比叶柄短,直立,果时下弯或否。佛焰苞绿色,背面有清晰的白色条纹,或淡紫色至深紫色而无条纹,管部圆筒形,长4-8毫米,粗9-20毫米;喉部边缘截形或稍外卷;檐部通常颜色较深,三角状卵形至长圆状卵形,有时为倒卵形,长4-7厘米,宽2.2-6厘米,先端渐狭,略下弯,有长5-15厘米的线形尾尖或否。肉穗花序单性,雄花序长2-2.5厘米,花密;雌花序长约2厘米,粗6-7毫米;各附属器棒状、圆柱形,中部稍膨大或否,直立,长2-4.5厘米,中部粗2.5-5毫米,先端钝,光滑,基部渐狭;雄花序的附属器下部光滑或有少数中性花;雌花序上的具多数中性花。雄花具短柄,淡绿色、紫色至暗褐色,雄蕊2-4,药室近球形,顶孔开裂成圆形。雌花:子房卵圆形,柱头无柄。果序柄下弯或直立,浆果红色,种子1-2,球形,淡褐色。花期5-7月,果9月成熟。
分布Distribution):除东北四省区、山东、江苏及新疆外,均有分布,生于海拔3200以下的林下、灌丛、草坡等处。东南亚也有。
用途(Use):块茎入药。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 23 Page 43, 66, 67, 68
Arisaema erubescens (Wallich) Schott in Schott & Endlicher, Melet. Bot. 17. 1832.
一把伞南星 yi ba san nan xing | Araceae  | Arisaema
 Arisaema erubescens
Credit: Harvard University Herbaria
Arum erubescens Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 30. 1831; Arisaema alienatum Schott var. formosanum Hayata; A. biradiatifoliatum Kitamura; A. brevipes Engler; A. consanguineum Schott; A. consanguineum subsp. kelung-insulare (Hayata) Gusman; A. erubescens var. consanguineum (Schott) Engler; A. formosanum (Hayata) Hayata; A. formosanum var. bicolorifolium T. C. Huang; A. formosanum f. stenophyllum Hayata; A. fraternum Schott; A. hypoglaucum Craib; A. kelung-insulare Hayata; A. kerrii Craib (1912); A. kerrii Gagnepain (1941); A. linearifolium J. T. Yin & Gusman; A. oblanceolatum Kitamura; A. tatarinowii Schott; A. undulatum K. Krause; A. vituperatum Schott.
Tuber depressed globose, 2-7 cm in diam. Cataphylls 3, dark green, with whitish striae or spots, to 55 cm, acute at apex. Petiole and peduncle green, smooth, unmarked. Leaf solitary, occasionally 2; petiole to 100 × ca. 2 cm, proximal ca. 50 cm sheathing into pseudostem; leaf blade radiate; leaflets 18-23, sessile, green abaxially, dull green adaxially, narrowly elliptic or narrowly linear, 16-28 cm × 2-20 mm, base cuneate, apex long acuminate and caudate, with filiform tail 7-10 cm; veins raised abaxially, impressed adaxially; lateral veins numerous, obliquely ascending. Peduncle shorter than petioles, to 75 cm, free part ca. 9 cm. Spathe green, with indistinct whitish stripes or not; tube cylindric, 6-7 × ca. 1.5 cm, auriculate and recurved at throat; limb deep green sometimes with purple margin outside, pale green inside, triangular-ovate, 8-12 × 4-8 cm, apex acuminate with long purple filiform tail, arching; tail to 35 cm, pendulous. Spadix unisexual; female zone conic, ca. 3.5 × 1.5 cm; ovary green, obovoid; stigma sessile, spherical, pilose; male zone cylindric, 4-4.5 cm × 4-5 mm; synandria dark violet; anthers subsessile, 2 or 3, dehiscent by apical pores. Appendix pale green, cylindric or narrowly conic, ca. 7 cm × 2-4 mm, with some acute neuter flowers at base. Infructescence nodding. Berries red. Fl. Jun-Jul.
Pinus forests, mixed forests, thickets, grassy slopes, lakesides, between rocks; below 3200 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, NE India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, N Thailand, Vietnam].
H. Hara (Bull. Univ. Mus. Univ. Tokyo 2: 321-354. 1971) noted that Arisaema consanguineum is characterized by having a threadlike appendage at the apex of the leaflets and spathe (but sometimes absent), a sessile spadix appendage with neuter flowers at least in the female spadix, and a nodding infructescence, whereas A. erubescens lacks a threadlike appendage on the leaflets and spathe, has a stipitate spadix appendage without neuter flowers, and has an upright infructescence. In the present treatment, we follow many Chinese floras in recognizing a wide range of variation for Chinese A. erubescens including both types of plants. One of us (Murata), until recently, considered that only true A. consanguineum is distributed in China, but he found the second type of plants, which share some characteristics with A. erubescens, north of Kunming City. However, these plants have a threadlike appendage on the leaflets and spathe and do not fit true A. erubescens (nor A. consanguineum in the strict sense) and could represent a new species. A revision of the whole A. erubescens-A. consanguineum group is now required.
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