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观音草Peristrophe bivalvis

时间:2013-07-15 16:24来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
观音草,Peristrophe bivalvis


中文名(Chinese Name):观音草
学名(Scientific Name):Peristrophe bivalvis (L.) Merr.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Peristrophe baphica (Spreng) Bremek.  Hypoestes bodinieri H. Lév.  Peristrophe roxburghiana (Schult.) Bremek.  Justicia tinctoria Roxb.  Peristrophe tinctoria (Roxb.) Nees  Justicia baphica Spreng.  Dicliptera bivalvis (L.) Juss.
科属(Family & Genus):爵床科(Acanthaceae)观音草属
形态特征(Description):多年生,直立草本,高可达1米;枝多数,交互对生,具5-6钝棱和同数的纵沟,小枝被褐红色柔毛,老枝具淡褐色皮孔。叶卵形或有时披针状卵形,顶端短渐尖至急尖,基部阔楔尖或近圆,全缘,长3-5 (7.5)厘米,宽1.5-2 (3)厘米,纸质,干时黑紫色,嫩叶两面被褐红色柔毛,老时上面渐无毛;侧脉每边5-6条;叶柄长约5毫米。聚伞花序,由2或3个头状花序组成,腋生或顶生;总花梗长3-5毫米,后被柔毛;总苞片2-4枚,阔卵形,卵形或椭圆形,不等大,大的长(1.8) -2.3-2.5厘米,宽8-15毫米,小的2-3厘米,顶端急尖,基部楔形,干时黑紫色或稍透明,有脉纹,被柔毛;花萼小,长4.5-5毫米,裂片披针形,被柔毛;花冠粉红色,长3-3.5(-5)厘米,被倒生短柔毛,冠管直,宽约1.5毫米,喉部稍内弯,上唇阔卵状椭圆形,顶端微缺,下唇长圆形,浅3裂;雄蕊伸出,花丝被柔毛,药室线形,下方的1室较小;花柱无毛,柱头2裂。蒴果未见,(据文献记载)长约1.5厘米,被柔毛。花期冬春。
分布(Distribution):产海南、广东、广西、湖南、湖北、福建、江西、江苏、上海、贵州、云南也产。除黔滇外,生于海拔500-1000米林下。印度、斯里兰卡、中南半岛、马来西亚到新几内亚岛也有分布。
用途(Use):通常做染料。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 19 Page 464, 465
Peristrophe bivalvis (Linnaeus) Merrill, Interpr. Herb. Amboin. 476. 1917.
观音草 guan yin cao  | Acanthaceae  | Peristrophe
Justicia bivalvis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 850. 1759; Hypoestes bodinieri H. Léveillé; J. baphica Sprengel; J. roxburghiana Roemer & Schultes; J. tinctoria Roxburgh; Peristrophe baphica (Sprengel) Bremekamp; P. roxburghiana (Roemer & Schultes) Bremekamp; P. tinctoria (Roxburgh) Nees.
Herbs to 1 m tall, perennial. Stems 5- or 6-angled, much branched, sulcate, pubescent. Petiole to 3.5 cm; leaf blade ovate to lanceolate-ovate, 3-14.5 × 1.5-5.3 cm, both surfaces puberulent (especially along midvein) or becoming subglabrescent, secondary veins 5 or 6 on each side of midvein, base broadly cuneate to subrounded, margin entire to sinuate, apex acuminate to acute. Cymes axillary or terminal, pedunculate, often consisting of 1-3(or more) pedunculate involucres terminating branches; peduncle 0.3-2.3 cm; outer involucral bracteoles broadly ovate, ovate, or elliptic, unequal in size, puberulent to subglabrous, base rounded to cuneate, apex acute; larger outer involucral bracteole (1.8-)2.3-3.3 × 0.8-1.5 cm; smaller outer involucral bracteole 0.71-0.85 × as long as larger one; inner cymule bracteoles triangular-subulate, 1-2 mm. Calyx 4.5-5 mm, pubescent; lobes lanceolate. Corolla pink, 3.5-5.7 cm, outside pubescent with non-glandular trichomes; tube ca. 1.5 mm in diam.; lip in lower position broadly ovate-elliptic, 2.2-2.6 × ca. 1.8 cm, apex emarginate; lip in upper position oblong, 2-2.5 × ca. 0.9 cm, 3-lobed. Staminal filaments ca. 1.3 cm, puberulent; anther thecae linear, subequally to unequally inserted (overlapping for most of their length), 3.2-4 mm. Ovary pubescent; style glabrous; stigma 2-cleft. Capsule ca. 1.5 cm, pubescent. Seeds ca. 1.5 × 1.5 mm. Fl. Aug-Mar.
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