中华栝楼Trichosanthes rosthornii

中文名(Chinese Name):中华栝楼
学名(Scientific Name):Trichosanthes rosthornii Harms
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):栝楼
异名(Synonym):Trichosanthes uniflora Hao  Trichosanthes guizhouensis C. Y. Cheng et C. H. Yueh  Trichosanthes stylopodifera C. Y. Cheng et C. H. Yueh  Trichosanthes crenulata C. Y. Cheng et C. H. Yueh  Trichosanthes japonica (Miq.) Kitamura
科属(Family & Genus):葫芦科Cucurbitaceae栝楼属Trichosanthes
形态特征(Description):攀援藤本;块根条状,肥厚,淡灰黄色,具横瘤状突起。茎具纵棱及槽,疏被短柔毛,有时具鳞片状白色斑点。叶片纸质,轮廓阔卵形至近圆形,长 (6-) 8-12 (-20) 厘米,宽 (5-) 7-11 (-16) 厘米,3-7深裂,通常5深裂,几达基部,裂片线状披针形、披针形至倒披针形,先端渐尖,边缘具短尖头状细齿,或偶尔具1-2粗齿,叶基心形,弯缺深1-2厘米,上表面深绿色,疏被短硬毛,背面淡绿色,无毛,密具颗粒状突起,掌状脉5-7条,上面凹陷,被短柔毛,背面突起,侧脉弧曲,网结,细脉网状;叶柄长2.5-4厘米,具纵条纹,疏被微柔毛。卷须2-3歧。花雌雄异株。雄花或单生,或为总状花序,或两者并生;单花花梗长可达7厘米,总花梗长8-10厘米,顶端具5-10花;小苞片菱状倒卵形,长6-14毫米,宽5-11毫米,先端渐尖,中部以上具不规则的钝齿,基部渐狭,被微柔毛;小花梗长5-8毫米;花萼筒狭喇叭形,长2.5-3 (-3.5) 厘米,顶端径约7毫米,中下部径约3毫米,被短柔毛,裂片线形,长约10毫米,基部宽1.5-2毫米,先端尾状渐尖,全缘,被短柔毛;花冠白色,裂片倒卵形,长约15毫米,宽约10毫米,被短柔毛,顶端具丝状长流苏;花药柱长圆形,长5毫米,径3毫米,花丝长2毫米,被柔毛。雌花单生,花梗长5-8厘米,被微柔毛;花萼筒圆筒形,长2-2.5厘米,径5-8毫米,被微柔毛,裂片和花冠同雄花;子房椭圆形,长1-2厘米,径5-10毫米,被微柔毛。果实球形或椭圆形,长8-11厘米,径7--10厘米,光滑无毛,成熟时果皮及果瓤均橙黄色;果梗长4.5-8厘米。种子卵状椭圆形,扁平,长15-18毫米,宽8-9毫米,厚2-3毫米,褐色,距边缘稍远处具一圈明显的棱线。花期6-8月,果期8-10月。
分布(Distribution):产甘肃东南部、陕西南部、湖北西南部、四川东部、贵州、云南东北部、江西(寻乌)。生于海拔400-1850米的山谷密林中、山坡灌丛中及草丛中。
用途(Use):本种的根和果实均作天花粉和栝楼入药。
引自中国植物志英文版: FOC Vol. 19 Page 38, 41     | Cucurbitaceae  | Trichosanthes
Trichosanthes rosthornii Harms in Engler, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29: 603. 1901.
中华栝楼 zhong hua gua lou
Stems grooved, sparsely puberulent. Petiole 2.5-4 cm, striate, sparsely puberulent; leaf blade abaxially pale green, adaxially deep green, broadly ovate to suborbicular, (6-)8-12(-20) × (5-)7-11(-16) cm, papery, deeply 3-7-lobed, usually deeply 5-lobed nearly to base; lobes linear-lanceolate, lanceolate, or oblanceolate, abaxially glabrous, adaxially shortly hairy, margin denticulate, apex acuminate. Male raceme solitary or with one 1-flowered peduncle in axillary pairs; peduncle 8-10 cm; pedicels up to ca. 7 cm; bracts rhombic-obovate, 6-14 × 5-11 mm, puberulent, attenuate at base, margin irregularly sinuate-dentate; calyx tube narrowly cylindric, dilated at apex, 2.5-3(-3.5) cm. Female flowers solitary; pedicel 5-8 cm, puberulent; calyx tube cylindric, 20-25 × 5-8 mm; ovary oblong, 10-20 × 5-10 mm, puberulent. Fruiting peduncle 4.5-8 cm; fruit orange-yellow, globose or oblong, 8-16 × 7-10 cm, smooth, glabrous. Seeds brown, ovate-oblong, compressed, 1.5-2.2 × 0.8-1.4 cm, marginate. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Aug-Oct.

● Dense forests along valleys, thickets or grasslands on mountain slopes; 400-1900 m. S Anhui, N Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, NE Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.
The roots and fruit are used medicinally as "tian hua fen" and "gua lou."
 中华栝楼Trichosanthes rosthornii

中华栝楼Trichosanthes rosthornii

中华栝楼Trichosanthes rosthornii
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