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钩藤Uncaria rhynchophylla

时间:2018-06-29 12:03来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):钩藤 学名( Scientific Name ): Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): Nauclea rhynchophylla Miq. Ourouparia rhynchophylla (Miq.) Matsum. Unc
中文名(Chinese Name):钩藤
学名(Scientific Name):Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):Nauclea rhynchophylla Miq.  Ourouparia rhynchophylla (Miq.) Matsum.  Uncaria rhynchophylla var. kouteng T. Yamaz.
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):茜草科(Rubiaceae)钩藤属
形态特征(Description):藤本;嫩枝较纤细,方柱形或略有4棱角,无毛。叶纸质,椭圆形或椭圆状长圆形,长5-12厘米,宽3-7厘米,两面均无毛,干时褐色或红褐色,下面有时有白粉,顶端短尖或骤尖,基部楔形至截形,有时稍下延;侧脉4-8对,脉腋窝陷有粘液毛;叶柄长5-15毫米,无毛;托叶狭三角形,深2裂达全长2/3,外面无毛,里面无毛或基部具粘液毛,裂片线形至三角状披针形。头状花序不计花冠直径5-8毫米,单生叶腋,总花梗具一节,苞片微小,或成单聚伞状排列,总花梗腋生,长5厘米;小苞片线形或线状匙形;花近无梗;花萼管疏被毛,萼裂片近三角形,长0.5毫米,疏被短柔毛,顶端锐尖;花冠管外面无毛,或具疏散的毛,花冠裂片卵圆形,外面无毛或略被粉状短柔毛,边缘有时有纤毛;花柱伸出冠喉外,柱头棒形。果序直径10-12毫米;小蒴果长5-6毫米,被短柔毛,宿存萼裂片近三角形,长1毫米,星状辐射。花、果期5-12月。
分布(Distribution):产广东、广西、云南、贵州、福建、湖南、湖北及江西,常生于山谷溪边的疏林或灌丛中。日本也有。
用途(Use):本种带钩藤茎为著名中药(钩藤),功能清血平肝,息风定惊,用于风热头痛,感冒夹惊,惊痛抽搐等症,所含钩藤碱有降血压作用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 19 Page 348, 349, 351, 352  
Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miquel) Miquel ex Haviland, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 33: 890. 1897.
钩藤 gou teng| Rubiaceae  | Uncaria
Nauclea rhynchophylla Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 3: 108. 1867; Ourouparia rhynchophylla (Miquel) Matsumura; Uncaria rhynchophylla var. koutong Yamazaki.
Lianas, height unknown. Young stems slender, weakly to markedly quadrangular, glabrous, sometimes glaucous. Petiole 5-15 mm, glabrous; leaf blade drying papery and often red-brown or dark red, elliptic, lanceolate, or elliptic-oblong, 5-12 × 3-7 cm, glabrous on both surfaces, often glaucous abaxially, base cuneate, obtuse, or rounded, apex acute to usually acuminate; secondary veins 4-8 pairs, sometimes with pilosulous domatia; stipules often deciduous, lanceolate to ovate, 4-15 mm, 2-lobed for up to 4/5, glabrous, lobes linear to triangular-lanceolate or ovate, acute to acuminate. Inflorescences axillary and terminal, solitary or usually in terminal groups of 7-11, glabrous; peduncles 1.5-5 cm, simple; bracts 1-4 mm; flowering heads 4-8 mm in diam. across calyces, 12-15 mm in diam. across corollas; bracteoles linear or linear-spatulate, ca. 2 mm. Flowers sessile or subsessile. Calyx with hypanthium portion obconic, ca. 1 mm, densely strigillose to strigose; limb densely strigillose, ca. 1 mm, lobed for 1/2 or more; lobes triangular to spatulate, acute to obtuse. Corolla color unknown, salverform, outside puberulent to glabrous; tube 5.5-6 mm; lobes ovate, 1.5-2 mm, rounded to obtuse. Fruiting head 10-20 mm in diam. Fruit sessile or subsessile, obovoid to fusiform, 5-7 mm, strigillose to strigose; seeds 2-3 mm. Fl. and fr. May-Dec.
Sparse forests or thickets at streamsides in valleys; near sea level to 1000 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan].
Ridsdale (Blumea 24: 93. 1978) included Uncaria rhynchophylloides as a synonym of U. rhynchophylla; however, these do appear to be distinct.
 






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