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啤酒花Humulus lupulus

时间:2013-10-17 16:58来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 啤酒花 学名( Scientific Name ): Humulus lupulus Linn. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Humulus americanus Nutt. Humulus volubilis Salisb. Humulus vulgaris G
中文名(Chinese Name):啤酒花
学名(Scientific Name):Humulus lupulus Linn.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Humulus americanus Nutt.  Humulus volubilis Salisb.  Humulus vulgaris Gilib.  Lupulus amarus Gilib.  Lupulus communis Gaertn.  Lupulus humulus Mill.
科属(Family & Genus):桑科(Moraceae)葎草属
形态特征(Description):多年生攀援草本,茎、枝和叶柄密生绒毛和倒钩刺。叶卵形或宽卵形,长约4-11厘 米,宽4-8厘米,先端急尖,基部心形或近圆形,不裂或3-5裂,边缘具粗锯齿,表 面密生小刺毛,背面疏生小毛和黄色腺点;叶柄长不超过叶片。雄花排列为圆锥花序,花 被片与雄蕊均为5;雌花每两朵生于一苞片腋间;苞片呈覆瓦状排列为一近球形的穗状花 序。果穗球果状,直径3-4厘米;宿存苞片干膜质,果实增大,长约1厘米,无毛,具 油点。瘦果扁平,每苞腋1-2个,内藏。花期秋季。
分布(Distribution):新疆、四川北部(南坪)有分布,我国各地多栽培。亚洲北部和东北部、美洲东部 也有。
用途(Use):果穗供制啤酒用,雌花药用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 74      
Humulus lupulus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1028. 1753.
啤酒花 pi jiu hua | Cannabaceae  | Humulus
Plants perennial. Petiole usually shorter than leaf blade; leaf blade 3-5(-7)-lobed, sometimes simple, 4-11 × 4-8 cm, abaxially glabrous or with scattered soft pubescence but without rigid spinulose hairs on veins, adaxially with few or no cystolith hairs marginally when young, base cordate, margin coarsely serrate, apex acute. Female flowers 2 per bract at least in middle of inflorescence; bracts imbricated into a globose spike. Infructescences globose, 3-4 cm in diam.; bracts ovoid, 1.5-2 cm, dry, membranous, apex acute. Achenes flat, included in bracts. Fl. autumn.
Gansu, N Sichuan, Xinjiang [N Africa, N and NE Asia, Europe, E North America].
A number of different varieties is usually recognized (Small, Syst. Bot. 3: 37–76. 1978), with the populations in China represented by at least both H. lupulus var. lupulus, a predominantly European to C and SW Asian variety, and var. cordifolius (Miquel) Maximowicz, a predominantly Japanese variety. In addition, the populations in S Gansu and N Sichuan may possibly be another, distinct variety. Further study is needed to sort out the pattern of varietal occurrence in China, which is complicated by the introduction and escape of cultivated var. lupulus for commercial production of hops for beer.
This species is cultivated throughout China, especially in E Shandong (Qingdao) and Xinjiang. The flowers and infructescences are important ingredients for beer making. The female flowers and bracts are used medicinally.




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