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禾雀花Mucuna birdwoodiana

时间:2018-08-13 20:19来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):禾雀花 学名( Scientific Name ): Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 白花油麻藤 异名( Synonym ): 科属( Family Genus ): 豆科(Leguminosae)黧豆属 形
中文名(Chinese Name):禾雀花
学名(Scientific Name):Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):白花油麻藤
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae黧豆属
形态特征(Description):常绿、大型木质藤本。老茎外皮灰褐色,断面淡红褐色,有3-4偏心的同心圆圈,断面先流白汁,2-3分钟后有血红色汁液形成;幼茎具纵沟槽,皮孔褐色,凸起,无毛或节间被伏贴毛。羽状复叶具3小叶,叶长17-30厘米;托叶早落;叶柄长8-20厘米;叶轴长2-4厘米;小叶近革质,顶生小叶椭圆形,卵形或略呈倒卵形,通常较长而狭,长9-16厘米,宽2-6厘米,先端具长达1.3-2厘米的渐尖头,基部圆形或稍楔形,侧生小叶偏斜,长9-16厘米,两面无毛或散生短毛,侧脉3-5,中脉、侧脉、网脉在两面凸起;无小托叶;小叶柄长4-8毫米,具稀疏短毛。总状花序生于老枝上或生于叶腋,长20-38厘米,有花20-30朵,常呈束状;苞片卵形,长约2毫米,早落;花梗长1-1.5厘米,具稀疏或密生的暗褐色伏贴毛;小苞片早落;花萼内面与外面密被浅褐色伏贴毛,外面被红褐色脱落的粗刺毛,萼筒宽杯形,长1-1.5厘米,宽1.5-2.5厘米,2侧齿三角形,长5-8毫米,最下齿狭三角形,长5-15毫米,上唇宽三角形,常与侧齿等长;花冠白色或带绿白色,旗瓣长3.5-4.5厘米,先端圆,基部耳长4毫米,翼瓣长6.2-7.1厘米,先端圆,瓣柄长约8毫米,密被浅褐色短毛,耳长约5毫米,龙骨瓣长7.5-8.7厘米,基部瓣柄长7-8毫米,耳长不过1毫米,密被褐色短毛;雄蕊管长5.5-6.5厘米;子房密被直立暗褐色短毛。果木质,带形,长30-45厘米,宽3.5-4.5厘米,厚1-1.5厘米,近念珠状,密被红褐色短绒毛,幼果常被红褐色脱落的刚毛,沿背、腹缝线各具宽3-5毫米的木质狭翅,有纵沟,内部在种子之间有木质隔膜,厚达4毫米;种子5-13颗,深紫黑色,近肾形,长约2.8厘米,宽约2厘米,厚8-10毫米,常有光泽,种脐为种子周长的1/2-3/4。花期4-6月,果期6-11月。
分布(Distribution):产江西、福建、广东、广西、贵州、四川等省区。生于海拔800-2500米的山地阳处,路旁,溪边,常攀援在乔,灌木上。
用途(Use):民间将本种用作通经络、强筋骨草药。种子含淀粉,有毒,不宜食用。
引自植物志英文版: FOC Vol. 10 Page 208, 209, 211
Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutcher, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 37: 65. 1904.
白花油麻藤 bai hua you ma teng | Fabaceae  | Mucuna
Large woody vines. Young stems glabrous or with fine stiff adpressed pale hairs at nodes. Leaves 17-30 cm; petiole 8-20 cm, with sparse stiff spreading hairs; stipels not persistent; leaflets almost leathery, glabrous or sparsely hairy abaxially, often glossy adaxially, lateral veins 3-5 pairs, gently curved; terminal leaflet ovate, elliptic, or slightly obovate, usually long and narrow, 9-16 × 2-6 cm, base rounded or slightly cuneate, apex with ± distinct acumen 1.3-2.2 cm; lateral leaflets 9-16 cm, width ratio of abaxial to adaxial halves 1.7-2:1. Inflores­cences on old branches or axillary, 20-38 cm, with 5-10 nodes spaced throughout most of length; bracts ovate, ca. 2 mm, cadu­cous; bracteoles very early caducous; pedicels 1-1.5 cm, hairy. Calyx hairy; tube 1-1.5 × 1.5-2.5 cm; lateral lobes broadly tri­angular, 5-8 mm, lowest narrowly triangular, 5-15 mm, upper lip usually equal to lateral lobes. Corolla white or greenish white; standard 3.5-4.5 cm, apex with margin conspicuously brown pubescent in apical 1/3-1/2; wings 6.2-7.1 cm, margin pubescent like standard around apex; keel 7.5-8.7 cm. Legume linear but markedly constricted between seeds, 30-45 × 3.5-4.5 cm, 1-1.5 cm thick, woody, densely pubescent, young legume clothed with dense short fine spreading velvety dark or red-brown pubescence and reddish brown caducous bristles, both margins with pair of narrow woody wings 3-5 mm wide, woody septum between seeds ca. 4 mm thick. Seeds 5-13, black, al­most reniform, to ca. 2.8 × 2 cm, 8-10 mm thick, usually glossy; hilum length 1/2-3/4 of seed perimeter. Fl. Apr-Jun, fr. Jun-Nov.
● Dense or open woodlands, rocky areas, moist hillsides and val­leys; 800-2500 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Si­chuan.
Mucuna birdwoodiana is distinctive in its narrow leathery glossy often glabrous leaves without persistent stipels; large white, often drying pale green, flowers with conspicuously pubescent margins at their apex; and large woody narrowly linear velvety pubescent legume with narrow marginal wings. It is not easily confused with any other species.
This species is used medicinally and as a starch.






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