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蝶豆Clitoria ternatea

时间:2018-08-13 20:22来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):蝶豆 学名( Scientific Name ): Clitoria ternatea L. 英文名( English Common Name ): Asian pigeonwings 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 蓝蝴蝶 异名( Synonym ): Clitoria bracteata Poir. Ternatea ternatea (L.)
中文名(Chinese Name):蝶豆
学名(Scientific Name):Clitoria ternatea L.
英文名(English Common Name):Asian pigeonwings
别名(Chinese Common Name):蓝蝴蝶
异名(Synonym):Clitoria bracteata Poir.  Ternatea ternatea (L.) Kuntze  Clitoria pilosula Benth.  Clitoria coelestris Siebert & Voss  Clitoria ternatensium Crantz  Clitoria albiflora Mattei  Lathyrus spectabilis Forssk.  Clitoria philippensis Perr.  Clitoria ternatea var. pilosula (Benth.)Baker  Nauchea ternatea (L.) Descourt.
科属(Family & Genus):豆科(Leguminosae)蝶豆属
形态特征(Description):攀援状草质藤本。茎、小枝细弱,被脱落性贴伏短柔毛。叶长2.5-5厘米;托叶小,线形,长2-5毫米;叶柄长1.5-3厘米;总叶轴上面具细沟纹;小叶5-7,但通常为5,薄纸质或近膜质,宽椭圆形或有时近卵形,长2.5-5厘米.宽1.5-3.5厘米,先端钝,微凹,常具细微的小凸尖,基部钝,两面疏被贴伏的短柔毛或有时无毛,干后带绿色或绿褐色;小托叶小,刚毛状;小叶柄长l-2毫米,和叶轴均被短柔毛。花大,单朵腋生;苞片2,披针形;小苞片大,膜质,近圆形,绿色,直径5-8毫米,有明显的网脉;花萼膜质,长1.5-2厘米,有纵脉,5裂,裂片披针形,长不及萼管的1/2;先端具凸尖;花冠蓝色、粉红色或白色,长可达5.5厘米,旗瓣宽倒卵形,直径约3厘米,中央有一白色或橙黄色浅晕,基部渐狭,具短瓣柄,翼瓣与龙骨瓣远较旗瓣为小,均具柄,翼瓣倒卵状长圆形,龙骨瓣椭圆形;雄蕊二体;子房被短柔毛。荚果长5-11厘米,宽约1厘米,扁平,具长喙,有种子6-10颗;种子长圆形,长约6毫米,宽约4毫米,黑色,具明显种阜。花、果期7-11月。
分布(Distribution):产广东、海南、广西、云南、台湾、浙江、福建。本种原产于印度,现世界各热带地区极常栽培。
用途(Use):全株可作绿肥。根、种子有毒。可作观赏植物,花大而蓝色,酷似蝴蝶,又名蓝蝴蝶。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 200, 201
Clitoria ternatea Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 753. 1753.
蝶豆 die dou | Fabaceae  | Clitoria
Herbs. Stems twining, slender, densely deciduous ad­pressed shortly villous. Leaves 2.5-5 cm, pinnately 5-7-folio­late, usually 5-foliolate; stipules small, linear, 2-5 mm; petiole 1.5-3 cm; stipels small, bristlelike; petiolules 1-2 mm; leaflets broadly elliptic or almost ovate, 2.5-5 × 1.5-3.5 cm, thinly pa­pery or almost membranous, adpressed shortly villous or some­times glabrous on both surfaces, lateral veins 4 or 5 pairs, base obtuse, apex obtuse, slightly emarginate, usually with mucro. Flowers large, solitary in axil; bracteoles green, small, subor­bicular or obovate, membranous, with obvious reticulate veins. Calyx membranous, 1.5-2 cm, 5-lobed; lobes lanceolate, less than 1/2 of tube, apex acuminate. Corolla sky blue, pink, or white, to 5.5 cm; standard faintly white or orange in middle, broadly obovate, ca. 3 cm, base shortly clawed; wings and keels much shorter than standard, both clawed; wings obovate-ob­long; keels elliptic. Ovary villous. Legume brown, linear-ob­long, 5-11 × 0.7-1 cm, compressed, with long beak. Seeds 6-10, black, oblong, ca. 0.6 × 0.4 cm, with obvious strophiole. Fl. and fr. Jun-Nov. 2n = (14, 15), 16.
Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Ma­laysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Americas, SW Asia, Australia, In­dian Ocean islands, Pacific islands].
This species is grown as a green manure and as an ornamental. It is very widely distributed throughout the tropics such that the native dis­tribution is now obscure.






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