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刀豆Canavalia gladiata

时间:2018-08-13 20:24来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):刀豆 学名( Scientific Name ): Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC. 英文名( English Common Name ): sword jackbean 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 挟剑豆 异名( Synonym ): Canavalia machaeroides (DC.)Steud. Canava
中文名(Chinese Name):刀豆
学名(Scientific Name):Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC.
英文名(English Common Name):sword jackbean
别名(Chinese Common Name):挟剑豆
异名(Synonym):Canavalia machaeroides (DC.)Steud.  Canavalia foureiri G.Don  Malocchia gladiata (Jacq.)Savi  Canavalia maxima Thouars  Canavalia loureirii G.Don  Canavalia enformis var. alba Makino  Canavalia enformis var. gladiata (Jacq.)Kuntze  Canavalia gladiata var. erythrosperma Voight  Canavalia gladiata var. machaeroides DC.  Canavalia gladiata var. spodosperma Voigt
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae刀豆属
形态特征(Description):缠绕草本,长达数米,无毛或稍被毛。羽状复叶具3小叶,小叶卵形,长8-15厘米,宽(4-)8-12厘米,先端渐尖或具急尖的尖头,基部宽楔形,两面薄被微柔毛或近无毛,侧生小叶偏斜;叶柄常较小叶片为短;小叶柄长约7毫米,被毛。总状花序具长总花梗,有花数朵生于总轴中部以上;花梗极短,生于花序轴隆起的节上;小苞片卵形,长约1毫米,早落;花萼长15-16毫米,稍被毛,上唇约为萼管长的1/3,具2枚阔而圆的裂齿,下唇3裂,齿小,长约2-3毫米,急尖;花冠白色或粉红,长3-3.5厘米,旗瓣宽椭圆形,顶端凹入,基部具不明显的耳及阔瓣柄,翼瓣和龙骨瓣均弯曲,具向下的耳;子房线形,被毛。荚果带状,略弯曲,长20-35厘米,宽4-6厘米,离缝线约5毫米处有棱;种子椭圆形或长椭圆形,长约3.5厘米,宽约2厘米,厚约1.5厘米,种皮红色或褐色,种脐约为种子周长的3/4。花期7-9月,果期10月。
分布(Distribution):我国长江以南各省区间有栽培,热带亚热带及非洲广布。
用途(Use):嫩荚和种子供食用,但须先用盐水煮熟,然后换清水煮,方可食用。本种亦可作绿肥,覆盖作物及饲料。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 198
Canavalia gladiata (Jacquin) Candolle, Prodr. 2: 404. 1825.
刀豆 dao dou| Fabaceae  | Canavalia
Dolichos gladiatus Jacquin, Collectanea 2: 276. 1788; Canavalia ensiformis (Linnaeus) Candolle var. gladiata (Jac­quin) Kuntze; C. gladiolata Sauer.
Herbs, climbing, several meters tall. Leaflets ovate, 8-20 × 8-12 cm, sparsely whitish or brown pubescent on both sur­faces, base rounded or cuneate, apex acuminate. Racemes 10-20-flowered; peduncles 20-25 cm. Flowers 2 or 3 clustered at each node. Calyx 15-16 mm, slightly pubescent, upper lip rounded, lower lip with 3 acute teeth. Corolla white or pink, 3-3.5 cm; petals clawed and auriculate; standard broadly elliptic, 3-3.5 × ca. 2.5 cm, emarginate; wings and keel ob­long, incurved, smaller than standard. Legumes linear-oblong, slightly curved, 20-35 × 3.5-6 cm, thickly leathery, each valve with extra rib ca. 5 mm from sutural rib. Seeds reddish brown, elliptic-oblong, ca. 3.5 × 2 cm; hilum ca. 1.5 cm. Fl. Jul-Sep, fr. Oct.
Widely cultivated in areas S of the Chang Jiang [domesticated in Asia; widely cultivated in the tropics].
Originally cultivated in E Asia and now widely cultivated in the tropics, this plant is not known out of cultivation, except as an escape.
The legumes and seeds are edible. It is also grown as a green ma­nure and forage.




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