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小刀豆Canavalia cathartica

时间:2018-08-13 20:24来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):小刀豆 学名( Scientific Name ): Canavalia cathartica Thou. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 野刀板豆 异名( Synonym ): Canavalia ensiformis var. turgida (Graham ex A. Gray) Ba
中文名(Chinese Name):小刀豆
学名(Scientific Name):Canavalia cathartica Thou.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):野刀板豆
异名(Synonym):Canavalia ensiformis var. turgida (Graham ex A. Gray) Baker  Lablab microcarpus DC.  Canavalia bouquete Montrouz.  Canavalia microcarpa (DC.) Piper  Phaseolus virosus (Roxb.)Bojer  Canavalia stocksii Dalzell & A.Gibson  Canavalia polystachya Schweinf.  Canavalia obtusifolia var. insularis Ridl.
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae刀豆属
形态特征(Description):二年生、粗壮、草质藤本。茎、枝被稀疏的短柔毛。羽状复叶具3小叶;托叶小,胼胝体状;小托叶微小,极早落。小叶纸质,卵形,长6-10厘米,宽4-9厘米,先端急尖或圆,基部宽楔形、截平或圆,两面脉上被极疏的白色短柔毛;叶柄长3-8厘米;小叶柄长5-6毫米,被绒毛。花1-3朵生于花序轴的每一节上;花梗长1-2毫米;萼近钟状,长约12毫米,被短柔毛,上唇2裂齿阔而圆,远较萼管为短,下唇3裂齿较小;花冠粉红色或近紫色,长2-2.5厘米,旗瓣圆形,长约2厘米,宽约2.5厘米,顶端凹入,近基部有2枚痂状附属体,无耳,具瓣柄,翼瓣与龙骨瓣弯曲,长约2厘米;子房被绒毛,花柱无毛。荚果长圆形,长7-9厘米,宽3.5-4.5厘米,膨胀,顶端具喙尖;种子椭圆形,长约18毫米,宽约12毫米,种皮褐黑色,硬而光滑,种脐长13-14毫米。花、果期3-10月。
分布(Distribution):产我国广东、海南、台湾。生于海滨或河滨,攀援于石壁或灌木上。热带亚洲广布,大洋洲及非洲的局部地区亦有。
用途(Use):
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 198, 199
Canavalia cathartica Thouars, J. Bot. Agric. 1: 81. 1813.
小刀豆 xiao dao dou | Fabaceae  | Canavalia
Canavalia ensiformis (Linnaeus) Candolle var. turgida (Graham ex A. Gray) Baker; C. microcarpa (Candolle) Piper; C. turgida Graham ex A. Gray; Lablab microcarpus Candolle.
Herbs, biennial, robust, twining. Stems and branches sparsely pubescent. Leaflets ovate, 6-10 × 4-9 cm, sparsely white pubescent on both surfaces, base broadly cuneate, trun­cate, or rounded, apex acute or rounded. Racemes with 1-3 flowers at each node of rachis. Calyx ca. 12 mm, pubescent, upper lip with rounded lobes, shorter than tube, lower lip with 3 teeth. Corolla pink or purplish, 2-2.5 cm; standard orbicular, ca. 2 × 2.5 cm, with 2 thickenings near base, clawed, apex emar­ginate; wings and keel curved, ca. 2 cm. Legumes oblong, 7-9 × 3.5-4.5 cm, turgid, apex rostrate. Seeds brownish black, ellip­tic, ca. 18 × 12 mm, hard and smooth; hilum 10-14 mm. Fl. and fr. Apr-Oct.
Seashores, riverbanks. Guangdong, Hainan, Taiwan [widely dis­tributed in tropical Asia and some areas of Africa and Australia].




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