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云实Caesalpinia decapetala

时间:2018-08-13 20:27来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):云实 学名( Scientific Name ): Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston 英文名( English Common Name ): shoofly 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 水皂角、天豆 异名( Synonym ): Caesalpinia japonica Siebold et Zucc
中文名(Chinese Name):云实
学名(Scientific Name):Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston
英文名(English Common Name):shoofly
别名(Chinese Common Name):水皂角、天豆
异名(Synonym):Caesalpinia japonica Siebold et Zucc.  Caesalpinia decapetala var. japonica (Siebold et Zucc.) Isely  Reichardia decapetala Roth  Biancaea decapetala (Roth) O. Deg.  Biancaea scandens Tod.  Caesalpinia benguetensis Elmer  Caesalpinia ferox Hassk.  Mezoneuron benguetense (Elmer)Elmer  Caesalpinia sepiaria var. auricoma Trimen  Biancaea decapetela (Roth) O. Deg.  Caesalpinia horrida A. Rich.
科属Family & Genus):云实科,Caesalpiniaceae云实属
形态特征Description):藤本;树皮暗红色;枝、叶轴和花序均被柔毛和钩刺。二回羽状复叶长20-30厘米;羽片3-10对,对生,具柄,基部有刺1对;小叶8-12对,膜质,长圆形,长10-25毫米,宽6-12毫米,两端近圆钝,两面均被短柔毛,老时渐无毛;托叶小,斜卵形,先端渐尖,早落。总状花序顶生,直立,长15-30厘米,具多花;总花梗多刺;花梗长3-4厘米,被毛,在花萼下具关节,故花易脱落;萼片5,长圆形,被短柔毛;花瓣黄色,膜质,圆形或倒卵形,长10-12毫米,盛开时反卷,基部具短柄;雄蕊与花瓣近等长,花丝基部扁平,下部被绵毛;子房无毛。荚果长圆状舌形,长6-12厘米,宽2.5-3厘米,脆革质,栗褐色,无毛,有光泽,沿腹缝线膨胀成狭翅,成熟时沿腹缝线开裂,先端具尖喙;种子6-9颗,椭圆状,长约11毫米,宽约6毫米,种皮棕色。花果期4-10月。
分布(Distribution):产华南、西南、华东、湖南、湖北、江西、河南、河北、陕西、甘肃等省区,生于山坡灌丛中及平原、丘陵、河旁等地。亚洲热带和温带地区有分布。
用途(Use):根、茎及果药用,性温、味苦、涩,无毒,有发表散寒、活血通经、解毒杀虫之效,治筋骨疼痛、跌打损伤。果皮和树皮含单宁,种子含油35%,可制肥皂及润滑油。又常栽培作为绿篱。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 41, 42, 45
Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon. 6(Suppl.): 89. 1931.
云实 yun shi| Fabaceae  | Caesalpinia
Reichardia decapetala Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 212. 1821; Caesalpinia decapetala var. japonica (Siebold & Zuccarini) H. Ohashi; C. decapetala var. pubescens (Tang & F. T. Wang) P. C. Huang; C. japonica Siebold & Zuccarini; C. sepiaria Rox­burgh; C. sepiaria var. japonica (Siebold & Zuccarini) Gagne­pain; C. sepiaria var. pubescens Tang & F. T. Wang.
Climbers, with copious prickles. Bark dull red. Branches, rachis of leaves, and inflorescence with recurved prickles and pubescent. Leaves 20-30 cm; pinnae 3-10 pairs, opposite, with prickles in pairs at base; stipules obliquely ovate, apex acumi­nate, caducous; leaflets 8-12 pairs, oblong, 1-2.5 cm × 6-12 mm, membranous, both surfaces puberulent, glabrescent when old, both ends obtuse-rounded. Racemes terminal, 15-30 cm, with abundant flowers; rachis densely prickly. Pedicels 3-4 cm, hairy, jointed at apex so flowers easily fall off. Sepals 5, oblong, puberulent. Petals reflexed at anthesis, yellow, orbicular or obo­vate, 1-1.2 cm, membranous, base shortly clawed. Stamens sub­equal to petals in length; filaments compressed at base, lanate in lower part. Ovary glabrous. Legume chestnut-brown, shiny, oblong-ligulate, 6-12 × 2.5-3 cm, fragile-leathery, glabrous, dehiscent and thickened to a narrow wing along ventral suture when ripe, apex prolonged into a sharp beak. Seeds 6-9, brown, elliptic, ca. 11 × 6 mm. Fl. and fr. Apr-Oct. 2n = 22*, 24*.
Among bushes on mountain slopes, ravines, plains, hills, by riversides; near sea level to 1800 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
The roots, stems, and legumes are used medicinally for relieving pain.




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