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毛旋花Strophanthus gratus

时间:2013-07-16 10:05来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):毛旋花 学名( Scientific Name ): Strophanthus gratus (Wall. Hook.) Baill. 英文名( English Common Name ): ouabain 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 旋花羊角拗 异名( Synonym ): Roupellia grata Wall. et Hook.;






中文名(Chinese Name):毛旋花
学名(Scientific Name):Strophanthus gratus (Wall. & Hook.) Baill.
英文名(English Common Name):ouabain
别名(Chinese Common Name):旋花羊角拗
异名(Synonym):Roupellia grata Wall. et Hook.;Nerium guineense Brongn. ex Perrot & Vogt;Roupalia grata (Wall. & Hook.) T.Moore & Ayres;Strophanthus chopraie M.R.Almeida;Strophanthus glaber Cornu ex Holmes;Strophanthus ouaboio Holmes;Strophanthus perrotii A.Chev.;Strophanthus stanleyanus Hook.  
科属(Family & Genus):夹竹桃科(Apocynaceae)羊角拗属
形态特征(Description):粗壮常绿攀援灌木,全株无毛;枝条干后红褐色,具白色皮孔,老枝条具纵条纹。叶厚纸质,长圆形或长圆状椭圆形,长9-15厘米,宽4-7.5厘米,顶端急尖,基部圆形或阔楔形;中脉在叶面扁平,在叶背凸起,侧脉每边6-8条,两面均扁平;叶柄长约1厘米,扁平;叶腋内具2枚钻状腺体。聚伞花序顶生,伞形,具短总花梗,着花6-8朵,无毛;花萼钟状,裂片倒卵形,长12毫米,宽6毫米,花萼内面基部有12枚腺体;花冠白色,喉部染红色,花张开后直径5厘米,花冠裂片倒卵形,顶端不延长成尾状,花冠筒上部膨大;副花冠为10枚舌状鳞片所组成,着生在冠檐喉部,鳞片基部合生,顶端离生并伸出花喉外,红色;雄蕊内藏,花药靠合在柱头上,药隔顶端丝状,花丝离生,被微毛;子房卵圆状,无毛,花柱丝状,柱头棍棒状。花期2月。
分布(Distribution):产热带非洲,我国台湾、云南也有栽培。
用途(Use):植株有大毒,在热带非洲有用作毒杀象及害虫,乳汁可作箭毒药;种子含羊角拗精,可药用,治心脏病等。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 16 Page 178      
Strophanthus gratus (Wallich & Hooker) Baillon, Hist. Pl. 10: 171. 1889.
旋花羊角拗 xuan hau yang jiao niu| Apocynaceae  | Strophanthus
Roupellia grata Wallich & Hooker, Bot. Mag. 75: t. 4466. 1849; Strophanthus gratus (Wallich & Hooker) Franchet.
Lianas woody, to 25 m, latex white. Trunk to 10 cm in diam.; branches dark or purplish brown, densely lenticellate, branchlets glabrous. Petiole 0.5-3.2 mm; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, or obovate, 5-18 2-9 cm, leathery, glabrous; lateral veins 5-11 pairs. Cymes 3-32-flowered, glabrous. Flowers fragrant. Sepals obovate or broadly so, 0.7-1.8 cm. Corolla white, turning yellow at base, reddish or purple above, throat reddish; tube 2.5-4.5 cm, inflated in distal half; lobes orbicular or nearly so, 1.5-3.5 X 1.5-3.2 cm, apex rounded; corona lobes pink, awl-shaped, 0.5-1.5 cm, exserted. Filaments pubescent adaxially, connective glabrous, extending into a tail 6-12 mm. Follicles divergent at 180°, cylindric, 23-41 X 3-4.3 cm. Seeds to 2 cm, beak 1.6-6.2 cm, coma to 5 cm. Fl. Feb. 2n = 18.
Taiwan [native to W and WC Africa]
Cultivated for medicine. The juice is used as an arrow poison.
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