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马兜铃Aristolochia debilis

时间:2013-12-04 17:28作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: Aristolochiaceae 马兜铃属 马兜铃科
  



中文名(Chinese Name):马兜铃
学名(Scientific Name):Aristolochia debilis Sieb. et Zucc.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名Synonym):Aristolochia sinarum Lindl.  Aristolochia recurvilabra Hance
科属(Family & Genus):马兜铃科(Aristolochiaceae)马兜铃属
形态特征(Description):草质藤本;根圆柱形,直径3-15毫米,外皮黄褐色;茎柔弱,无毛,暗紫色或绿色,有腐肉味。叶纸质,卵状三角形,长圆状卵形或戟形,长3-6厘米,基部宽1.5-3.5厘米,上部宽1.5-2.5厘米,顶端钝圆或短渐尖,基部心形,两侧裂片圆形,下垂或稍扩展,长1-1.5厘米,两面无毛;基出脉5-7条,邻近中脉的两侧脉平行向上,略开叉,其余向侧边延伸,各级叶脉在两面均明显;叶柄长1-2厘米,柔弱。花单生或2朵聚生于叶腋;花梗长1-1.5厘米,开花后期近顶端常稍弯,基部具小苞片;小苞片三角形,长2-3毫米,易脱落;花被长3-5.5厘米,基部膨大呈球形,与子房连接处具关节,直径3-6毫米,向上收狭成一长管,管长2-2.5厘米,直径2-3毫米,管口扩大呈漏斗状,黄绿色,口部有紫斑,外面无毛,内面有腺体状毛;檐部一侧极短,另一侧渐延伸成舌片;舌片卵状披针形,向上渐狭,长2-3厘米,顶端钝;花药卵形,贴生于合蕊柱近基部,并单个与其裂片对生;子房圆柱形,长约10毫米,6棱;合蕊柱顶端6裂,稍具乳头状凸起,裂片顶端钝,向下延伸形成波状圆环。蒴果近球形,顶端圆形而微凹,长约6厘米,直径约4厘米,具6棱,成熟时黄绿色,由基部向上沿室间6瓣开裂;果梗长2.5-5厘米,常撕裂成6条;种子扁平,钝三角形,长宽均约4毫米,边缘具白色膜质宽翅。花期7-8月,果期9-10月。
分布(Distribution):分布于长江流域以南各省区以及山东(蒙山)、河南(伏牛山)等;广东、广西常有栽培。生于海拔200-1500米的山谷、沟边、路旁阴湿处及山坡灌丛中。
用途(Use):本种药用,茎叶称天仙藤,有行气治血、止痛、利尿之效。果称马兜铃,有清热降气、止咳平喘之效。根称青木香,有小毒,具健胃、理气止痛之效,并有降血压作用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 267
Aristolochia debilis Siebold & Zuccarini, Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4(3): 197. 1846.
马兜铃 ma dou ling  | Aristolochiaceae  | Aristolochia
Aristolochia recurvilabra Hance; A. sinarum Lindley.
Herbs twining. Stems terete, smooth, glabrous, with enlongate internodes. Petiole 1-2 cm, glabrous; leaf blade ovate or oblong-ovate to sagittate, 3-6 × 1.5-3.5 cm, papery, both surfaces glabrous, veins palmate, 2-3 pairs from base, base cordate, sinus 1-1.5 cm deep, apex acute or obtuse. Flowers axillary, solitary or paired. Pedicel 1-1.5 cm, ascending, glabrous; bractlets deltoid, 2-3 × 2-3 mm, inserted near base of pedicel. Calyx yellow-green, throat dark purple; tube rectilinear, abaxially glabrous; utricle globose, 3-5 mm in diam., sessile; tube 20-25 × 2-3 mm; limb unilateral, ligulate, ovate-lanceolate, 2-3 × ca. 1 cm, apex obtuse. Anthers elliptic, ca. 0.5 mm. Gynostemium 6-lobed. Capsule subglobose, 4-6 cm in diam., dehiscing acropetally. Seeds obtusely deltoid, ca. 4 × 4 mm, with membranous wing. Fl. Jul-Aug, fr. Sep-Oct.
Thickets, mountain slopes, moist valleys; 200-1500 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Zhejiang [Japan].
This very important medicinal plant was first identified by Thunberg as Aristolochia longa Linnaeus.
顶一下
(6)
85.7%
踩一下
(1)
14.3%
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