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狗枣猕猴桃Actinidia kolomikta

时间:2013-07-15 16:49来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
狗枣猕猴桃,Actinidia kolomikta,狗枣子








中文名(Chinese Name):狗枣猕猴桃
学名(Scientific Name):Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. et Rupr.) Maxim.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):狗枣子
异名(Synonym):Actinidia maloides Li  Actinidia maloides f. cordata C. F. Liang  Actinidia kolomikta var. gagnepainii (Nakai) H. L. Li  Actinidia gagnepainii Nakai  Actinidia tetramera var. maloides (H. L. Li) C. Y. Wu  Prunus kolomikta Maxim. et Rupr.  Trochostigma kolomikta Rupr.  Kalomikta mandshurica Regel 
科属(Family & Genus):猕猴桃科,Actinidiaceae,猕猴桃属, Actinidia
形态特征(Description):大型落叶藤本;小枝紫褐色,直径约3毫米,短花枝基本无毛,有较显著的带黄色的皮孔;长花枝幼嫩时顶部薄被短茸毛,有不甚显著的皮孔,隔年枝褐色,直径约5毫米,有光泽,皮孔相当显著,稍凸起;髓褐色,片层状。叶膜质或薄纸质,阔卵形、长方卵形至长方倒卵形,长6-15厘米,宽5-10厘米,顶端急尖至短渐尖,基部心形,少数圆形至截形,两侧不对称,边缘有单锯齿或重锯齿,两面近同色,上部往往变为白色,后渐变为紫红色,两面近洁净或沿中脉及侧脉略被一些尘埃状柔毛,腹面散生软弱的小刺毛,背面侧脉腋上髯毛有或无,叶脉不发达,近扁平状,侧脉6-8对;叶柄长2.5-5厘米,初时略被少量尘埃状柔毛,后秃净。聚伞花序,雄性的有花3朵,雌性的通常1花单生,花序柄和花柄纤弱,或多或少地被黄褐色微绒毛,花序柄长8-12毫米,花柄长4-8毫米,苞片小,钻形,不及1毫米。花白色或粉红色,芳香,直径15-20毫米;萼片5片,长方卵形,长4-6毫米,两面被有极微弱的短绒毛,边缘有睫状毛;花瓣5片,长方倒卵形,长6-10毫米;花丝丝状,长5-6毫米,花药黄色,长方箭头状,长约2毫米;子房圆柱状,长约3毫米,无毛,花柱长3-5毫米。果柱状长圆形、卵形或球形,有时为扁体长圆形,长达2.5厘米,果皮洁净无毛,无斑点,未熟时暗绿色,成熟时淡桔红色,并有深色的纵纹;果熟时花萼脱落。种子长约2毫米。花期5月下旬(四川)-7月初(东北),果熟期9-10月。
分布(Distribution):产黑龙江、吉林、辽宁、河北、四川、云南等省。其中以东北三省最盛,四川其次。生于海拔800-1500米(东北),1600-2900米(四川)山地混交林或杂木林中的开旷地。苏联远东、朝鲜和日本有分布。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 12 Page 335, 338
Actinidia kolomikta (Maximowicz & Ruprecht) Maximowicz, Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans. 9: 63. 1859.
狗枣猕猴桃 gou zao mi hou tao | Actinidiaceae  | Actinidia
Prunus kolomikta Maximowicz & Ruprecht, Bull. Cl. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 15: 129. 1856; Actinidia gagnepainii Nakai; A. kolomikta var. gagnepainii (Nakai) H. L. Li; A. leptophylla C. Y. Wu; A. maloides H. L. Li; A. maloides f. cordata C. F. Liang; A. tetramera Maximowicz var. maloides (H. L. Li) C. Y. Wu; Kalomikta mandshurica Regel, nom. illeg. superfl.; Trochostigma kolomikta (Maximowicz & Ruprecht) Ruprecht.
Climbing shrubs, large, deciduous. Branchlets glabrous, lenticels inconspicuous to subconspicuous when young, conspicuous when old; pith brown, lamellate. Petiole yellowish white to reddish brown, 2.5-5 cm, sparsely pubescent to glabrous; leaf blade broadly ovate to oblong-ovate or oblong-obovate, 6-15 × 5-10 cm, membranous to thinly papery, abaxially glabrous to subglabrous, sometimes barbate at vein axils, adaxially sparsely strigillose, midvein and lateral veins distinct and raised abaxially, slender, inconspicuous adaxially, lateral veins 6-8 pairs, veinlets reticulate, inconspicuous on both surfaces to subconspicuous abaxially, base cordate, occasionally rounded to truncate, equal or oblique, margin serrate to biserrate, apex acute to abruptly acuminate. Inflorescences cymose, 1-3-flowered; peduncles 0.8-1.2 cm, very slender; pedicels 4-10 mm, glabrous to yellowish brown tomentose; bracts linear, minute. Flowers pink or white. Sepals 5, ovate to oblong-ovate, 4-6 mm, glabrous, margin ciliate, apex acute. Petals 5 or 6, obovate, 6-10 mm. Filaments 3-6 mm; anthers yellow, oblong, 2-2.5 mm, sagittate at base. Ovary globose, ca. 3 mm, glabrous. Fruit pale orange when mature, ovoid, 2-2.5 cm, glabrous, lenticels absent; sepals caducous. Seeds ca. 2 mm. Fl. Apr-Jul, fr. Sep-Oct. 2n = 58*, 116*.
Mountain mixed forests in open places, also widely cultivated; 1600-2900 m. Chongqing, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan [Japan, Korea, Russia].
Actinidia kolomikta var. shihmienensis C. Y. Chang (J. Sichuan Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. 3: 78. 1976), described from Sichuan, could not be treated here because no material was seen by the authors.
 
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